BLOOD PRESSURE ESTIMATION RESULTS: (a)Measurement of blood pressure during resting phase Subject’s name: Wong Hoor Sheam Measurement Systolic pressure (mmHg) Diastolic pressure (mmHg) Mean Arterial Pressure (mmHg) Trial 1 100 65 76.67 Trial 2 93 62 72.33 Trial 3 95 60 71.67 Average 96 62 73.33 (b) Changes in blood pressure during orthostatic tolerance (when standing from supine position) Subject’s name: Ong Wei Qiao Time (minutes) Systolic pressure (mmHg) Diastolic pressure (mmHg) Heart rate Supine 140 74 70 0 144 88 72 1 135 89 79 2 136 91 86 3 134 87 75 4 128 81 76 5 126 90 71 (c) Changes in blood pressure after exercise Subject’s name: Abdullah Time (minutes) Systolic pressure (mmHg) Diastolic pressure (mmHg) Heart rate Baseline 132 70 99 0 142 73 129 2 135 75 122 4 140 80 126 6 143 96 123 8 112 81
When increased respiration rises the blood pH level beyond the normal range 7.35-7.45, it causes respiratory alkalosis. Some causes are anxiety, fever, hyperventilation, pregnancy or any lung disease that causes shortness of breath (Respiratory alkalosis, 2014). Mechanisms responsible for compensation to respiratory alkalosis are rapid cell buffering and decrease in renal acid excretion (Respiratory alkalosis, 2014). To treat respiratory alkalosis carbon dioxide is to be inhaled. Inhaling inside of a paper bag or using a mask that causes you to re-breath carbon dioxide can be used as treatment (Respiratory alkalosis, 2016).
I have realised that some positions are harder to breathe in, thus I assumed that different body positions can affect my lung capacity. This is why I decided to investigate the effect of different body positions on lung capacity. The forced vital capacity (FVC) is a pulmonary function measure often used for this purpose and is defined as the maximum volume of air exhaled from after maximum inspiration (Martinez, BP, et al, 2015), which was the measure used in this
My mode is Duo Positive Airway Pressure on the Hamilton G5. It is pressure control, a set inspiratory pressure is set to be proportional to patient inspiratory pressure. The breath sequence is intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV). Ventilatory support is between mandatory and spontaneous breaths. The rate setting directly affects the number of mandatory breaths and the level of ventilatory support.
Arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the capillaries, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. An artery's muscle helps it expand and contract in rhythm with the heart beating to keep blood moving through the system. Capillaries connect veins and arteries to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Thin and weak, capillaries are only as thick as one epithelial cell. Blood passes through capillaries one cell at a time, single file.
The reading shows that the pressure of the blood in the patient arteries when the heart is contracting is slightly higher than normal, which means that this patients has a pre-high high blood pressure. The diastolic blood pressure is the bottom figure which is 90 in the reading of
Hypothesis If a person exercising is working harder, by performing an exercise like running or sprinting, their heart rate and CO2 production will be higher, measured by higher BPM and lower time taken to turn the BTB yellow, than a person who is sitting or walking, because muscles need more energy to perform the more strenuous tasks, and the higher heart rate and CO2 production will indicate a higher cellular respiration rate. Experimental Design IV: Exercise. Sitting, walking, running, and sprinting up the stairs will be an increasing amount of work for the person’s body, showing a trend toward harder work DV: CO2 measured by BTB, HR measured in BPM, both will show increase in intensity and cellular respiration. Control: Sitting person will provide a baseline against exercise
Experimenting the Effects of pH Levels on a Liver’s Enzyme Rate of Reaction What is the effect of pH levels with variations of 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 (±0.5) on the effect of rate reaction measured by volumetric amount in mL (±2.5) when time (180 seconds), temperature (23ºC) and substrate concentration (1g of 100%liver (±0.01)) are kept constant? This experiment was successfully conducted by placing the pieces on liver inside several flasks holding different pH levels and measuring the amount of oxygen released by the reaction by collecting it in a balloon and later calculating its volume. Criterion 1: Personal Engagement Human anatomy has always been a fascinating topic for me. My interest began when my left kidney started
The signs and symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, chronic cough, fatigue and having bluish lips and nail beds (American Lung Association, 2014). The second vital human body system is cardiovascular system (CVS). CVS plays an integral role in enhancing and facilitating the proper function of heart in order to allow the body to function as a whole. CVS comprises of two components namely heart and blood vessels. Heart is a four-chambered muscular pumping organ that divides into atriums and ventricles that are separated by valves to prevent backflow of blood among the compartments (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2010).
The act of breathing is achieved by 4 process as following: 1- Pulmonary ventilation: Pulmonary ventilation is defined as the act of moving air into and out of the lungs in order to achieve inhalation and exhalation. However negative pressure system and muscles contraction are used by our respiratory system to allow the air to flow in and out of the body. Negative pressure system function is to make the pressure of the alveoli lower than the atmosphere pressure, this can be achieved by the assistance of the pleural membrane, where pleural membrane impresses the lungs when they are at rest, as a result the air will flow into the lunges in order to rise up the lunges pressure until it matches the atmosphere pressure, at this point the diaphragm will contract and more air can be inhaled, meanwhile the contraction of external intercostal muscle will cause an increment in the thorax volume, so as a feedback the lungs pressure will go lower than the atmosphere pressure
VO2 Max is the body’s ability to consume and use O2 at a high rate (1). Scientists agree that there does seem to be an upper limit to oxygen uptake for each person, and that upper limit varying dramatically from one individual to the next based on a number of factors (2). Measuring one’s VO2 Max is a little like measuring a car’s miles per gallon efficiency (7). To better understand VO2 Max, one must understand what factors affect VO2 Max, types of activities one can do to exercise and train at VO2 Max, and what VO2 does inside the body. VO2 Max varies in every individual (1).
This process can be measured in numerous ways, such as observing the amount of heat produced or changes in temperature in general (since cellular respiration is exergonic.) Another technique is measuring gas consumption or emission using a respirometer. The consumption of oxygen and a high carbon dioxide concentration would constitute cellular respiration, since oxygen is a reactant and carbon dioxide is a product. In this particular study, oxygen was measured in three different germination time trials. In order to observe oxygen consumption exclusively, NaOH was utilized to absorb carbon dioxide.
The estimation of preload is based on the assumption that pressure and volume are equated. Therefore, pressures are used to estimate end diastolic volume. Likewise, RA pressure is used to assess end diastolic volume of the RV, and PAWP is used to evaluate left ventricular preload. Afterload is the resistance to ventricular ejection and is influenced by PVR. PVR assesses the right ventricular afterload, and SVR indexed to BSA estimates left ventricular afterload (Morton & Fontaine, 2013).