Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Case Study

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1.1 Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) MCI is considered the borderline between normal cognitive aging and very early dementia [Refs]. The historical evolution of the MCI concept has recently been reviewed by Petersen [Refs], including the more recent formulation by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) [Refs]. In general, the MCI syndrome is characterized by a cognitive deficit greater than would be expected considering the individual’s age and educational level, but not enough to significantly interfere with the functioning in his daily life. The prevalence of MCI ranges from 15% to 20% in individuals older than 60 years [Refs]. MCI is defined as amnestic MCI when memory impairment is the predominant symptom…show more content…
The new criteria extend the concept of the disease to a broader disease spectrum and recommend the use of term ‘NMO spectrum disorders’. However, the main clinical criteria remain the same. NMO is more frequent in women [Refs] and the age of onset ranges from 35–45 years [Refs]. Although familial cases have been reported [Refs], the disease is mainly sporadic. The global prevalence of NMO is approximately 1 to 3 per 100,000 [Refs] and it is higher in non- Caucasian countries [Refs]. In most of the cases, NMO follows a relapsing course with attacks of ON, LETM or both, that can be separated by weeks to years [Refs]. Approximately only 10 % of NMO patients follow a monophasic course [Refs]. The typical symptoms of NMO include impaired vision, paraplegia or tetraplegia as well as bladder and bowel dysfunctions. About 60% of NMO patients show blindness in at least one eye after a disease duration of 7–8 years or severely impaired ambulation as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) [Refs]. Unlike MS, a secondary progression course is uncommon in relapsing NMO [18]. A distinctive clinical feature of relapsing NMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related [Refs]. In general, NMO has a worse prognosis and response to treatment compared to MS [Refs]. Most of the deaths occur due to respiratory failure as a result of cervical myelitis or brainstem involvement

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