Justice Clark’s dissent emphasized the importance of confidentiality: “Until today’s majority opinion, both legal and medical authorities have agreed that confidentiality is essential to effectively treat the mentally ill and that imposing a duty on doctors to disclose patient threats to potential victims would greatly impair treatment” (Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California, 1976, p. 20). If patients are unable to trust their therapist completely, then it is likely that they will not be as open during their sessions, which will make it difficult for the therapist to accurately diagnose and treat the patients. The decision by the court places the therapist in a difficult position. A therapist could utilize the ethical principle of beneficence, defined as acting in ways that benefit another and prevents harm, in determining the best way to act to benefit both the patient and protect the third party. Per the ruling of the court, “when a therapist determines, or pursuant to the standards of his profession should determine, that his patient presents a serious danger of violence to another,” he is required to warn the victim of that “danger” (Felthous, 2006, p. 339).
Psychologists have contributed immensely on the ways in which an appropriate investigative interview should be conducted. As would be clear by the above discussion, incorrect questioning can bias the memories of the witnesses. The classical studies by Loftus and her colleagues have emphasized the importance of suggestibility. A study conducted by RAND Corporation (1975) found that although eyewitness testimony was an important variable that determined whether a case was solved or not, yet many eyewitnesses were unreliable as they were highly suggestive. Hence, it is extremely important that police officials and others who are involved in the criminal investigation process are properly trained in conducting interviews.
In “The Myth of Mental Illness,” Szasz established his view that people use mental illness to justify their actions and release responsibility for those actions. He also says that if mental illness were a real illness, “one could catch or get it, one might transmit it to others, and finally one might get rid of it.” (Szasz 116). His arguments are strong in his reasoning and without prior knowledge one might wholeheartedly believe his views, but today we hold
Eyewitness testimonies were a large factor in the conviction of possible suspects. They are commonly asked to recognize the suspect, several years after the actual crime. However, research done by psychologists suggest that eyewitness testimonies are very unreliable. When people encode and process their memories, they lose and alter part of it, and when it is retrieved, the memories have been revised with what they later imagined or experienced. The wording effect and the misinformation effect also plays a large role in leading the witness to reconstruct false memories.
Within this discrimination, they are basically say that one kind is more likely to do one thing then another. There is evidence that“ ...even deep-seated stereotypes and unconscious biases can be eroded through both education and exposure to minorities who don’t fit common stereotypes...they can be contained when people are held accountable for their decisions. “(Fact Sheet). Racial profiling dehumanizes societies and is a bias act made by authorities. Using Racial profiling creates tension, especially when people are treated differently because of the way they look.
Following the stereotypes, one can simplify the whole picture of the world and make it more comprehensible. But very often the stereotypes appear to be too generalized or wrong. One of the crucial social issues in the United States is constant racial stereotyping of ethnic minorities, which leads to the emergence of such phenomena as racism and discrimination. Brent Staples in his essay “Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space” and Judith Ortiz Cofer in her work “The Myth of the Latin Woman: Just Met a Girl Named Maria” both make several important observations about the biased attitude of the whites to ethnic minorities in the United States. Although both authors present their own life experiences and reveal the harmful consequences of racial stereotyping in the society their points of view on the ways of avoiding the conflict situations based on those misunderstandings are different.
The basis of criminal defense and prosecution is often formed by eyewitness testimonies. If these testimonies are inaccurate it could lead to a wrongly formed criminal defense and prosecution. According to Loftus, “It is clearly of concern to the law, to police and insurance investigators, and to others to know something about the completeness, accuracy, and malleability of such memories." It is important to study the memory of an eyewitness because for the defense, prosecution, police, insurance investigators, and people involved in the crime or accident it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information. I do not think the Loftus studies supports the use of eyewitness testimony as evidence because an eyewitness testimony is inaccurate.
The coercion method covers a broad range of factors that are used, whether intentionally or not, to add pressure to the interrogation. Precise methods, such as providing suspects with a reason for their lack of memory, repeatedly accusing the suspect as guilty, isolating the accused from others, causing interrogations to be extensively emotional and exhausting, telling the accused that there is proof of their guilt, reminding the suspect that there are red flags in their history, and continually re-stating the severity of punishment, are all used to induce a false confession (Chapman). Whether through manipulation, induced stress and other emotions, or threats, coercive errors cause suspects to feel their only way to escape the interrogation and the pressures that come with it are to fabricate a confession. The way law enforcement interrogations are carried out causes the extensive pressure detainees are put under. As a result, it is easy to blame the interrogator for using such psychologically taxing methods.
Psychologist have many roles in the criminal justice system. They are applied scientist, basic scientist, policy evaluator, and advocate. There are three systems within the criminal justice system that psychologist work in that is in law enforcement, courts, and corrections. Each one of these areas have different sections in our legal system. Psychologist doesn’t only study criminals, they also study the individuals inside the system such as the judge, police officers, prison guards, and several others.
As I matured and started thinking about the future, I wondered if there was a way to combine both of my interests of psychology and forensic science. I did my research and found forensic psychology. It’s the perfect thing for me to do and I know that I will enjoy it! Forensic psychology is the cross road of psychology and the justice system. As a forensic psychologist I will either work for a prison, attorney, police department or there is many other options I can chose from.
As well a lay person may believe a false eyewitness, believing they would not change what exactly they saw. A follow up study to help with these limitations would be a study that would have a more diverse selection of people. They would be administered one of the three scenarios as well. While the people are viewing the scenario, they will also be taking an exam to depict if they are racist or not or have feelings towards people that are different from them. In closing, both discredited eyewitnesses and jurors can determine and outcome of a trial, resulting in a life changing decision for the person that is accused.
Forensic psychology is often times associated with what people see in the TV series such as “Bones” or “Criminal Minds”. Forensic psychology, as defined by the American Psychological Association, is “the professional practice by psychologists within areas of clinical psychology, counseling psychology, school psychology or another specialty” (APA, 2016). Within this field, the psychologist should be engaged as an expert of this specialty, and “emphasizes the application of research and experimentation in other areas of psychology (e.g., cognitive psychology, social psychology)” to provide answers to questions and issues regarding the law to the judicial system (Ward, 2013). Also, crime prevention is an important role in the field of forensic
In Thomas M. Ross’s article, he states, “Juries are criticized for deciding on cases based on prejudice and emotion rather than relying on the evidence and the law.” Juries might have sympathy or hatred for one of the victims based on previous experiences that can be related to the circumstance. This type of discriminatory judgement can lead to unjust
According to Source A “Two different testers might come up with two different personality profile for the same person”(2) The test shows the person 's the person 'sr personality. If someone takes the same rorschach test and get a different result it is because that person said something different than the first time. The rorschach test also allows psychologists to see how people find and create meaning through the thought process. The rorschach test is a reliable and useful test. According to source B the rorschach test is meaningless.
Another thing that places students of color at a disadvantage in college admissions is the persisting cultural bias in high-stakes testing. “High-stakes” tests are those that are tied to major consequences, such as admission to college, or even high school graduation. Fair education reform advocates have long been citing an extensive record of standardized testing concerns, many of which relate to racial bias and discrimination. As researcher and author Harold Berlak explains in the journal Rethinking Education: Standardized testing perpetuates institutionalized racism and contributes to the achievement gap between whites and minorities. For instance, the deeply embedded stereotype that African Americans perform poorly on standardized tests