Machiavelli also defends wars in case of the statement “ends justify the means”. In the Chapter 14 he claims that “prince ought to have no other aim or thought, nor select anything else for his study, than war” (Machiavelli 67). This attitude helps the governor to keep officials and other people on tenterhooks so they will not be able to think about other things like the rebellion. Machiavelli understood such position will cause many human tolls both in the governor’s country and on the enemy’s side. But he justified wars, because they helped to achieve the goal to protect and improve the ruler’s position.
The gestures of the queen have the capacity to not only acknowledge the nature of the warriors and their ranks, but also to extend the peace among them in a manner the men may have been unable to state vocally. This role, according to Twibell (6), while seemingly passive, is significant to the development of the battle from the point onwards and the declaration of the king to end the war soon. The same display of power manifests when Hygd offers Beowulf the throne, lacking faith in the capacity of her son to take on the role and its requirements for defense (Beowulf 2369-2371). The most significant role a female holds in Beowulf is that of a “peace weaver” by which women are married off to an enemy, to end feuding and create peace amongst tribes. Wealhtheow notably held this role, she married a foe to her people, in order to generate peace between two
According to Machiavelli, “Because it is sufficient if the prince does not abandon the methods of his ancestors and proves adaptable when unforeseen events occur.” A leader who knows well his constituents and what is happening in his territory over the past few years creates a state that is well governed. Considering the mixed principality, a combination of the hereditary possession and the new members or sometimes a totally new set of rulers is more difficult than a totally hereditary one for it involves a combination of different views, belief, opinions and goal. In acquiring liberty in conquering a certain state from the hereditary principality takes strategies and a lot of courage. An example that Machiavelli used in discussing his argument is Louis XII, King of France, who is a new ruler lose twice in conquering Milan over Duke Ludovico.
Furthermore, a hierarchical structure allows for people to focus on their duties at hand, and thus establishes a more systematic method of administration which improves efficiency in the country. The ruler, who is ranked at the top, would be virtuous such that instead of imposing proper behavior by law, people would automatically follow his virtuous example . This is true to a certain extent - but only when the governor does indeed practice moral integrity and virtuousness. For example, Duke Shao of the Zhou family exercised a virtuous government and when he had died, the later generations still thought of him. This reflects the meaning of the Ode "The umbrageous sweet pear-tree" ; for he had rested under that pear tree and later generations, remembering his virtue, could not bear to hew it down .
Machiavelli noticed that princes that always honor their word are praised, however, princes that succeeded are those that gave their word lightly and knew how to trich men. This goes back to the topic of loyalty and how human nature influences politics. Machiavelli expressed that a ruler must learn to fight with both force and law, being half man and half beast. By doing this, a prince would know how to respond accordingly to his subjects. Machiavelli again describes man as “wretched creatures who would not keep their promises to [the prince], [so he does] not need to keep [his] word to them.”
Ultimately, though, Machiavelli concludes that while a prince may not have all of these qualities, he must seem to have them. He must seem as virtuous as possible to the people, but, as previously stated, due to the inherently evil nature of man, he must also be prepared to work against virtue. However, if a prince has previously had a reputation of goodness, his actions will always be justified by the people and future wrongdoings will be excused. In conclusion, while a prince must strive to be multifaceted in order to succeed, he must also at the very least appear to be multifaceted and have a virtuous
According to him, using violence is a part of the nature of the people; and it could be used for various reasons or for various gains . Since safety does not exist for anyone, the natural state of the people needs an adjustment to establish it. This adjustment proposed by Hobbes is gathering all the power in one man who can establish common peace . This is a contract between the people and the sovereign and it enables the sovereign to merge his body with the body sovereignty. This model legitimizes the power of the sovereign without including the god’s will into the equation but by simply defending such power is the source of establishing peace.
According to Machiavellian, concerning the secretaries of a prince, it is significant for a prince to be careful to select a servant because the servant represent a prince. The loyal servant will represent an image of a good prince, but disloyal will represent an image of incomplete prince. The servant must have less thinking about personal than the rules, if not, he can never be a good servant. Also a characteristic of Machiavellian will have scheming plan, and be cunning. Claudius had done terribly and graceless, which make him the archetypal as Machiavellian character.
Throughout The Prince, Machiavelli described the decisions a wise prince would make in many situations. He stated that a wise prince would surround himself with intelligent advisors, and listen to them carefully, but make his own decisions and stick to them. A wise prince would win the goodwill of the people, and keep his citizens dependent on him and on the state. This is imperative because the citizen's goodwill is the best defense against both domestic and foreign threats. When he stated, “He must therefore be a fox to discern toils, and a lion to drive off wolves,” (46) he expresses that a prince should be able to discern whether to use force or deceit when dealing with different situations.
When the tyrant states, “Here had we now our country’s honor roofed, were the graced person of our Banquo present, who may I rather challenge for unkindness than pity for mischarge,” a sense of importance of his friend in the gathering is created. In essence, Macbeth purposely makes a statement in acknowledgement of Banquo’s absence because he knows that his best friend has significant influence in terms of keeping allies. The lack of his presence is prone to have some negative effect on Macbeth’s rule, which is later discovered it does indeed. Lady Macbeth also indicates that “If he had been forgotten, it had been as a gap in our great feast, and all-thing unbecoming,” to further emphasize Banquo’s importance because of the idea that it only takes one link to render the entire chain useless. As Macbeth proclaimed all the nobility of Scotland in attendance and Lady Macbeth welcomed the guests, the reader can clearly see the amount of importance this function possesses.