For this, machine translation systems are developed which convert the text from a source language to a target language. Following are the well-developed machine translation systems for Indian languages. • ‘Mantra-Rajbhasha’ is a MAchiNe assisted TRAnslation tool is developed by C-DAC and is used by the government of India to translate documents. The translation system uses parser developed using Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG). The English language text regarding Personnel administration, Finance, Agriculture, Information Technology, Education, HealthCare, Small-scale industries and Banking domains are inputted to this system.
MACHINE TRANSLATION METHODS Machine translation can be done using various methods. Mainly they are divided into four categories. Following section discusses about these methods: a. Rule Based Machine Translation (RBMT) In RBMT method source language structure is translated into target language structures with the help of linguist information. Dictionaries are prepared for rules and use these dictionaries for translation of two different languages.
Formerly they learnt it first and then used it, if possible. • Now students have realized the importance of English as far as higher education is concerned. • India has two official languages – Hindi and English. So English is taught as a second language. English is now no longer only a subject.
They include speakers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and worldwide. English was brought to India by the British in the seventeenth century. After India got its independence in the year of 1947, English was accepted as one of the 15 official languages in the constitution that can be used in the government communications and taught in the school system. Present Contrastive analysis takes in to consideration primarily the phonologies of
A variety of approaches have been proposed to deal with disambiguation in natural language text. In this paper we report our solution to tackle word sense disambiguation of Marathi language text. Marathi is the official language of state of Maharashtra in India. The paper is distributed in following sections. Section 1 gives introduction about word sense disambiguation, section 2 details the efforts carried out in the world for dealing with ambiguity problem in various natural languages, section 3 describes our approach of WSD, section 4 is conclusion and last is references.
Machine Translation is the process to translate text from a source language to a target language by using methods which based linguistic rules or statistical approaches whose constraints are derived on the bases of statistical models to produce accurate translation, many researchers around the globe have been working on different projects for almost 60 years. The ability to transliterate proper names and technical terms has influence on Statistical Machine translation (SMT) as well as Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) [AbdulJaleel and Larkey, 2003], SMT systems uses large parallel corpora which may consist several million words although SMT relay on counting exact matches of sequence of words which be different in term of length
Watching Indian movies you will probably pay your attention on the wide usage of the English vocabulary in the original script, as sometimes the percentage can be like 70 (Hindi )/30 (English). Isn’t impressive? But maybe this fact can stay as a good sign for understanding that Hindi is overlap by English and soon can take the second linguistic position among the society? Anyway, now Indians don’t worry about losing their identity because they have a strong historical background and unique culture and they use English as the first language for improving international relationship. It is also the second language for many who speak more than one language in India.
The story of the India novel in English is really the story of an altering India. Indian English novels have come quite a long way from the sheer use of English language to the authentic means for expressing one’s ideas, thoughts, concepts and imagination. There was a time when education was not in growth and speaking English was needless. It has attained maturity, but it is not that it rapidly emerged from nowhere. It has had its phases of development.
INTRODUCTION English is a vast reservoir of translation in contemporary India. It is no longer a colonial language but, it is increasingly a conduit language. This language has today a certain inescapable presence. More English translating have been published in India in recent times than ever before. A person who was able to read the language, and enjoyed the original may find no translation satisfactory, whereas someone who cannot, is likely to regard readibility in English is the prime requisite.
The presence of Indianness in Indo-Anglian literature makes Indian literature a separate genre. Indianness is identified in the selection of subject, thought, sentiment and use of language in a work of Art. Toru Dutt, Sarojini Naidu, Rabindranath Tagore, Jawaharlal Nehru, Aurobindo Ghose, Mahatma Gandhi, R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand and Raja Rao are some of the internationally recognized Indian writer in English. English and Indian writing in English have achieved success in spite of some opposite views against