The macroinvertebrate include some insects, flatworms, mollusks and crustaceans. Also as the fish species are easy to collect and identify, it is advantageous in getting an idea of the health of aquatic community by analysing, which also gives an idea of the water quality. To generalise the impacts of drought on the aquatic biota, it is considered that the aquatic biota faces an increasing stress leading to loss of aquatic habitat, water quality decreases, and food resources reduction. Correspondingly, the biota may respond differently to the altered water quality which is due to the drought, equally important the physical habitat may become lethal for the biota, this might cause effects on behaviour, physiology and physically. The impact varies from place to place and varies to types of biota as well.
Spatial and temporal concepts are the foundation of biogeography. These factors can be explained by looking at patterns, processes and scale. Patterns can be divided into abiotic patterns that are considered to be the foundation of biotic patterns. Abiotic patterns are considered to be continental drift, elevation, soil type, temperature fluctuation, humidity, climate type, precipitation, seasonal variation, etc. Whereas biotic patterns are subdivided into biota distribution, surface biome and species
Pollution greatly affects their diversity as they responded to different environmental conditions (Sharma, M.P). They are affected by the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the stream (US EPA). They have a large number of species that respond to a variety of environmental conditions (Sharma, M.P). Different taxa show varying degrees of sensitivity to pollution and other impacts (Boothroyd & Stark 2000). There are species that can survive to polluted waters, the pollution tolerant organisms like the midge larva, pouch snails, and rat-tailed maggots.
2003, Mapstone et al. 2004) indicate that the relative importance of different biological characteristics varies at different spatial scales, and that the pattern of spatial variability of a particular characteristic appears to differ among species. Spatial variation in demographic and life history characteristics may give local populations varying resilience to disturbances including fishing, and consequently local populations may
His research focuses on the Ecology and systematics of freshwater zooplankton and limnology, including studies on invasive copepods, long-term limnological research, palaeolimnology, freshwater biodiversity and aquaculture impacts. Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. It is a unique and important component of global biodiversity, playing a fundamental role in support of the environment, society and the economy. Ecosystems like wetlands, rivers, aquifers, and lakes are indispensable for life on our planet and are vital for directly ensuring a range of benefits and services such as drinking water, water for food and energy, habitats for aquatic life forms, and natural solutions for water purification and climate resilience, among many others. Freshwater ecosystems comprise of 0.8% of the earth’s surface but contain 6% of all known species.
Because the multidimensionality of biodiversity poses formidable challenges to its measurement, a variety of surrogate or proxy measures are often used. These include the species richness of specific taxa, the number of distinct plant functional types (such as grasses, forbs, bushes, or trees), or the diversity of distinct gene sequences in a sample of microbial DNA taken from the soil. Species- or other tax on-based measures of biodiversity, however, rarely capture key attributes such as vari¬ability, function, quantity, and distribution—all of which provide insight into the roles of
Almost every inland water body whether it is a river, stream, seepage or lake supports a biological community within it (Gullan and Cranston, 2000). Insects are now recognized as important components of biodiversity (Kim, 1993; Kremen et al., 1993; Oliver & Beatlie, 1996; Yen & Butcher, 1997). They play vital roles in processes such as pollination, soil formation and fertility, plant productivity, organic decomposition and the regulation of populations of other organisms through predation and parasitism (Daily et al., 1997; Yen and Butcher, 1997). Insects are also the food source of many vertebrates (Vantomme et al. 2012).
Ayoko et al. (2007) observed that usually communities that depend on untreated groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes are communities that lack adequate infrastructures to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies due to poverty. Chenini I and Khemiri S. (2009) noticed that the chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by many factors that include the composition of precipitation, mineralogy of the aquifers, climate, and topography. They concluded that the effect of the combination of these factors can create diverse water types that change in composition spatially and temporally. It is important to mention here that the interaction between groundwater and the host rock is affected by some physical parameters such as temperature, pH, etc.