The three things that can cause the enzyme to denature is a large change in pH level, High Temperature, and substrate concentration. According to our knowledge, we know that a large change in pH will cause instability in the protein structure thus resulting in denaturation of the enzyme. From the data, we can see that pH 3 (total:6.3) and 10 (total:6.2) were the slowest because pH 3 is probably the highest acid and pH 10 is the highest base. The highest acid or base pH represents a large change which would cause the enzyme to denature. The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
Enzymes are a form of protein that lowers activation energy and speeds up reactions as a catalyst. They are made by the stringing together of an abundant amount of amino acids and folded into a specific shape for chemical reactions. Turnip Peroxidase is the enzyme used in this lab and is derived from the vegetable. Enzymes are not used up or permanently altered by their environment Peroxidases are found in a range of organisms and function to break down alcohol (H2O2) and creates byproducts of oxygen and water. In this experiment, the reducing agent guaiacol is added with the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, to create water and oxygen. The enzyme of turnip peroxidase is added in the equation to catalyze the oxidation.
Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end.
To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds. It was hypothesized that the optimal pH for the enzyme was pH 7 while the 1.0 ml peroxidase would have the best reaction rate. At the end of the experiment the results prove the hypothesis to be incorrect.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1). These factors include the pH and the temperature of the solution (1). Most enzymes have a preferred temperature and pH range (2). The preferred temperature for catalase falls between the ranges of thirty five to fifty degrees Celsius (4). Temperatures that are too high denature the enzyme and halt the enzyme’s activity (2). Catalase denatures starts to denature at fifty five degrees Celsius (2). Reactions in the human body produce hydrogen peroxide as a product (1). Since hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to the human body, catalase catalyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen (2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2) (1). According to the collision theory, a reaction can only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy and with correct geometrical orientation (3). Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles which means that an increase in temperature will increase the speed of the hydrogen peroxide and the catalase molecules which
Enzymes are proteins that significantly speed up the rate of chemical reactions that take place within cells. Some enzymes help to break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Other enzymes help bind two molecules together to produce a new molecule. Enzymes are selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction. The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates. The substrates bind to a region on the enzyme called the active site. The active site is precisely shaped to hold specific substrates.
In this experiment it was examined whether the enzyme peroxidase will work fastest in a pH of 8.0. We placed the enzyme peroxidase in a reaction with guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide in four different pH solutions. Then recorded the absorbencies for each reaction until all substrates were used up, and calculated the initial reaction velocities for each. We found that the reaction in a pH 7.0 solution had the highest initial reaction velocity. Over-all this study shows that the enzyme peroxidase will work the fastest in a 7.0 solution.
There were five different types of enzymes that were used to break down the toothpicks. There was the control, the normal enzyme, the enzyme working in decreased temperature, the enzyme with a competitive inhibitor, and the denatured enzyme. The decrease in temperature was simulated by putting your hands in water for a minute before breaking the toothpicks. The competitive inhibitor was simulated by having two different types of toothpicks and only being able to break one. The denatured enzyme was simulated by having to rubber bands around your fingers. The control enzyme was able to break the most toothpicks out of everybody and at a faster rate. This shows how efficient a normal enzyme is at starting chemical reactions. The competitive inhibitor
There are four types of macromolecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The three being discussed today are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Carbohydrates are compounds made up of one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. are made of simple sugars, and are put into three categories. These categories are monosaccharides, which are made of one sugar molecule, disaccharides, made of two sugar molecules, and polysaccharides, made of more than two sugar molecules. Lipids are made of triglycerides, molecules made of one glycerol, and three fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds in their molecular structure, and unsaturated fatty acids include double bonds in their molecular structure. Proteins
An enzyme is a biological catalyst (protein) which speeds up the rate of chemical reactions without changing the chemical reaction at the end. A chemical reaction is when a substance is changed into a different substance. To begin a reaction, you need energy which in this case is called activation energy. A reaction in a chemical reaction is called a substrate when it is being acted upon by an enzyme that speeds up the rate of a reaction. In addition, the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds is the active site. The lock and key hypothesis is an analogy stating that only the correctly sized key (substrate) fits into the key hole (active site) of the lock (enzyme), which means that there is only one substrate that has the ability to react with an enzyme.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiments for week 5 and week 6 support each other in the further understanding of enzyme reactions. During week 5, the effects of a substrate and enzyme concentration on enzyme reaction rate was observed. Week 6, the effects of temperature and inhibitor on a reaction rate were monitored. For testing the effects of concentrations, we needed to use the table that was used in week 3, Cells. The 3 concentrations of enzymes were 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml of turnip extract, while the substrate consisted of 0.1ml, 0.2 ml, and 0.4 ml of hydrogen peroxide. In a separate tube, the control was made up of turnip extract and guaiacol, known as the color reagent. This was recorded the absorbance every 20 seconds for 3 minutes.
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution