When a person who specializes in medicine does a lot of examination in the patient, he chooses the exact one for you. The antibiotics enter your body and start fighting with these harmful bacteria. The process of fighting for each antibiotic is different. Some of them attack the bacteria cell membrane, so the bacteria cells will die. Another way to fight bacteria is to destroy the protein inside the bacteria cells.
a. What are Enzymes Enzymes are very efficient protein based catalysts for biochemical reactions, which are essential to all living this to sustain life. Enzymes itself are not alive as they are proteins, however they are still made by living things and act as a catalyst to speed up the overall chemical reaction, asmost chemical reactions in biological cells would occur too slowly if it was not for these enzymes. Despite them making chemical reactions move quicker, they are not changed by the reaction. b. Optimal Enzyme Temperature There is a certain temperature at which an enzyme's catalytic activity works at its best and is at its greatest.
In nature simple molecules will bind with other molecules to transform into macromolecules and in-turn these more complex molecules will degrade back into their simple form. The duration of these chemical reactions will vary and can take years to successfully change from one structure to another. Although, this process may work at times in the physical world, the human body does not have years to wait on reactions such as the transformation of food into usable energy. This is why the metabolic process within living beings will produce enzymes that will help catalyze chemical reactions. One particular catalytic mechanism that can enhance the rate of a reaction is known as general acid-base catalysis.
Mitochondria are the main suppliers of ATP in most mammalian cells, it control both neurotic and the apoptosis signaling pathway, which is the apoptotic cell death pathways. Mitochondria is associated with the coordination of the cellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling. Mitochondria also produces and are targets of free radical species that control many characteristics of the cell’s physiology, this can be seen in Figure 1 and the structure and function can be seen in Figure 2. (Duchen and Szabadkai 2010) Currently, the theory that persists is that mitochondria is the progeny of aerobic bacteria that colonized a prokaryote (Spees, et al. 2006).
When working as a chemical technician you work in a laboratory most of the time. Chemical technicians set up the laboratory equipment, such as mass spectrometers and simple laboratory glassware, required for the tests and experiments they do. The jobs of a chemical technician also require that they do require maintenance on the equipment. In experiments where airborne toxins or temperature may affect the results of an experiment, they maintain the required conditions in laboratories. Such as dust and toxic free “clean rooms” and refrigerated spaces.
Research Question How does the change in temperature affect the effectiveness of protease on breaking down egg whites? Introduction Enzymes are a substance known as biological catalysts, this basically means they can, without being used up, speed up chemical reactions. Enzymes are made up proteins that create elaborate shapes that smaller molecules, such as protein particles, can then fit in. These areas that allow the molecules to fit in are called active sites. Some different enzymes such as protease, amylase and lipase, all work well in different conditions, and in different parts of the digestive system.
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen and is widely tested for in food, environmental and clinical samples. Given the close morphological and biochemical resemblances of L. monocytogenes to other Listeria species, and the non-specific clinical manifestations of listeriosis, the availability of rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tests capable of distinguishing L. monocytogenes from other (Liu, 2006). In the food industry, standard culture procedures are used as reference methods for regulatory purposes and for validation of new technology. These methods are sensitive but often time consuming and may take 5 to 6 days before the result is available. Two of the most widely-used culture reference methods for detection of Listeria in all foods are the FDA bacteriological and analytical method
It can also destroy PCB-based waste oils. The incineration process requires high temperatures, over 850°C. For the destruction of large amounts of contaminated material, even higher temperatures - 1000°C or more - are required. Prevention or reduction of human exposure is best done via source-directed measures, i.e. strict control of industrial processes to reduce formation of dioxins as much as possible.
Most of the research showed that the destruction of cell membrane is the main reason of inactivation. It has been also indicated that TiO2 can cause damage to Amino Acids and DNA. Researchers have suggested a number of mechanisms for this process. Based on the deconstruction of cell structure, the most important targets which can play a key role in inactivation process are extracellular and intracellular target sites. For extracellular target sites, the most convincing research showed that lipids are the major targets for oxidative radical attack.
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria