These codes can be shown as symbolic, written, audio and technical. Each one of these elements helps to categorised and helps to determine the genre. Conventions are what an audience typically expects from the genre. The producers and directors then in turn use what the audience expect in order to make the genre desired. Narrative conventions are the expected characters, settings, storylines and themes of a particular type of genre.
(Klinger 6) It is hard to distinguish between fantasy and related genres such as science fiction. (Timmerman 2) Then what kind of unique features does fantasy have that allows it to be identified as fantasy? According to Timmerman, six traits must be present to some degree to be able to be identified as fantasy literature. Which
Do you know how to define a horror story? Some people define it as a story with monsters, others define it as a scary story. In the story “What is the Horror Genre”, Sharon A. Russell decides the best way to define the horror genre is using the structure (suspense and setting), organization (parallel worlds, supernatural, and “ the fantastic”), the source of the horror, and one of two themes (good vs. evil or forbidden knowledge). Sharon A. Russell also explains three different ways suspense creates horror. Those three types are: suspense that is intensified by knowing it’s a horror story, the control of when and where we get our knowledge creates suspense, and our advanced knowledge creates suspense since we can anticipate future events.
Moreover, speculative fiction was defined in comparison to science fiction which is “a literary genre whose necessary and sufficient conditions are the presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main formal device is an imaginative frame- work alternative to the author’s empirical environment”. However, the difference between them is that
Literature offers a variety of genres to each type of reader. It is important to bear in mind that when teenagers can pick which literature texts read, their interests may function as condition to choose what literature genre they will read. Some adolescents may choose science fiction as their favorite literature genre. As Bucher and Manning point out, “Science Fiction books allow readers to enter imaginative worlds that are full of endless possibilities. Young adults also enjoy escaping to the strange worlds of speculative fiction.
“While Whitman served originally as a perfect foil for a young artist trying to plant roots in a country divorced from his American heritage, the poet finally became exalted in the eyes of a mature Eliot” (88). “Eliot 's cultural commentary in the 1930s and 40s, which sought to create a society united around certain religious and social doctrines so as to avoid the ‘chaos of liberal democracy’” is in contrast to Whitman’s idea of a democratic society. The former’s “need for order in his art, religion, and society” contrasts with the latter 's “apparent ease around chaos” (87). There are points of similarity too. “Successful experimentation with dramatic, poetic personas in the first person as well as important, albeit very distinct innovations on the long poem as a form” are among the similarities of the two poets.
History of Metadiscourse & Rationale Within the domain of second language acquisition, several theorists have examined writing and other language skills in order to reach the best ways of how to effectively teach the English language learners. The old belief was that the mastery of grammar is enough for good writing. Also, rich vocabulary was also believed to be essential for effective writing. Following Bloomfield’s view, the attention moved to the sentence level and the focus has move to the effective construction of sentences, ignoring the wide set of skills needed in order to write a coherent text (Martin, 1992). Indeed, writing a coherent text entails a set of skills which include sentence structure, rhetorical skills, cognitive
I study the interpretation of meaning in fairy tales—there is a pile of scholarly books on my desk in which are buried my worn-out fairy-tale books—and I apply what I’ve learned to my editing, teaching, and writing in intricate ways. To learn the history of fairy tales is to learn the history of myth, printing, childhood, literacy, violence, loss, psychology, class, illustration, authorship, ecology, gender, and more. My first three novels—scarce of word though they may k a t e b e r n h e i m e r 64
The contrast between these two sub-sets of fiction is controversial among critics and scholars. Neal Stephenson has suggested that while any definition will be simplistic, there is a general cultural difference between literary and genre fiction today. On the one hand literary authors are nowadays are frequently supported by patronage, with employment at a university or similar institutions, and with the continuation of such positions determined not by book sales but, by critical acclaim by other established literary authors and critics. On the other hand, he suggests, genre fiction writers tend to support themselves by book sales. However, in an interview John Updike lamented that "the category of 'literary fiction ' has
And due to all these facts a spy novel could be created as full-valued as any other kind and form of fiction. Later with the approaching threat of WWII, a number of authors changed their topics and themes, and turned for the first time to depict international intrigues and politics. After the war and restoration of normal life situation the same writers returned to their usual themes