Amaryll Chanady in her book ‘Magical Realism and Fantastic’ characterizes magical realism with two conflicting ideas, one based on an enlightened view of reality and the other one based on the acceptance of celestial as a part of this real world. Thereby, magical realism in literature defends the concurrence of real and fantastic. The narrator accepts realistic conventions, also introduces things which are not seen as real into the text. These elements are woven together in a magical realist text seamlessly. Thus the text does not only belong to the realm of fantasy but also empirical reality.
At the articulation of G. G. Marquez’s name the term which immediately crosses the readers’ mind is magical realism. In his much acclaimed “Strange Pilgrims” Marquez perfectly embodies magical realism as a technique of revamping the marvelous into actual existence. Incorporating the elements of macabre and fantastic, the stories of the anthology reverberate with apparently familiar events that take on magical and strange implications as the Latin American characters attempt to come to terms with a foreign environment. Marquez aptly shows his taste for magical realism, the perfect mélange of fantasy and hyperbole exhibited in a framework of reality, which pervades throughout the stories of “Strange Pilgrims”. His narration is so serious and natural that he is able to produce a magical terrain where everything is possible and believable.
Martin (2010) says that magic is the central of fantasy stories. According to him, magic can lead the reader into a bored and uninterested mood if it is done poorly, conversely, it will fuel an astonishing and incredible story if the author can create a sophisticated and interesting magic. In order to make an interesting magic, therefore, author needs to create the rule on how the magic will work along the story. 2.2. Magic Law Nikolajeva (1988, as cited in Watts, 2006) states that magic law is rules that apply in order to build up an imagined world.
Magical realism has become a popular narrative mode because it offers to the writer wishing to write against totalitarian regimes a means to attack the definitions and assumptions which support such systems by attacking the stability of the definitions upon which these systems rely. It is typical for books and essays on magical realism to begin by stating that the concept and its history are too complex to be able to provide a definition. Vonnegut’s Billy Piligrim in Slaughterhouse-Five represent a curiously American pragmatic expression of magical realism, a fatalist sense that its presence is part of the weight and inevitability of destiny. Perhaps in this way Vonnegut’s work
This statement is related to the concept of realism, indeed by affirming that he wants to represent the society and the human types, his novels should have some real foundations taken from the reality. Consequently, the context became fundamental and it represents the starting point for the description of the events. Le Père Goriot is set in 1819, after the Napoleon defeat and when the industrial revolution started. It was a period of great revolution and changes between the hierarchy of the social classes and Balzac aims to represent the various tensions of that period, especially in Paris. Moreover, in the Avant-Propos Balzac affirm that the novelist should be the secretary of the history, he tells us the story from a scientific point of view because he added that the novelist has to study the humanity as the biologist study the animals.
As Angel Flores, a 20th century Puerto Rican writer, puts it, magical realism transforms “the common and the everyday into the awesome and the unreal”. Readers are also forced to accept magical realism through authorial reticence, which occurs when characters in the novel express a lack of clear opinions of bout the accuracy of events and credibility of world views. This prevents the supernatural world from being questioned since making the supernatural elements explicit would eradicate a person’s position of neutrality regarding his conventional view of reality. The narrative technique of metafiction is defined by Professor Patricia Waugh, a literary critic, intellectual historian and Professor of English Literature, to be “fictional writing which self-consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artifact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and
History today is generally taught as overview of a specific time period, recognizing things that happened in the past but never plunging farther than material on the surface. Colson Whitehead’s novel, “The Underground Railroad” uses the concept of historical fiction to stress an interpretation of history through fictional humanization and other literary devices, motivating emotional appeal in the reader with a specific story, albeit fictional. By developing pathos, novels resembling Whitehead’s are able to give the world a new account of history—one that is likely to be more memorable due to the influence on human appeal. While the novel uses fiction to explore history, it does so without taking away the reality of history, using the facts presented in the story to build logos. Historical fiction novels allow the reader to explore outdated philosophies by presenting the information from a different perspective with pressure on having an authentic mindset from the time.
He concentrates on the original imaginative life of the myths and gives meaning to the ethos of the novel ironically. Beginning in realism, the irony steadily moves to myth and dim outlines of rituals reappear in ironic mode. This reappearance of myth in the ironic is obvious in A Suitable Boy as it elaborates certain rituals of Hindus and
Fantasy has been variously used by novelists as well as short story writers as a convenient narrative technique; it is akin to Aristotle’s concept of marvelous. It helps the writer transcend the boundaries of the real world. According to C. S. Lewis fantasy “is a narrative that deals with impossible and preternatural.”3 But it is always rooted in realism. It provides a wider framework to the writer’s vision to reflect upon life and society of
Magic realism thus, turns out to be a carnivalesque discourse that upholds the jovial ‘carnivalesque spirit’ in which not only “language is used extravagantly,” but also myths, legends, supernatural elements, folktales of a specific cultural society, (Faris and Zamora 184). The exuberance of different magical elements offers thus an incredible novelty while revising the truth-claims of western realism. Examining the spirit of the carnival based on, zestful exaggerations and profusion of different elements, Danow explains that magic realism upholds the carnival’s principles of excess, exaggeration, transgression and inversion as the magical turns out to be real and the real changes into magical: “regards the supernatural as natural, takes fiction as truth, and makes the extraordinary or “magical” as viable a possibility as the ordinary or “real” so that no true distinction is perceived or acknowledged between the two” (Danow 3) . Accordingly, it holds a poetics of subversion, disrupting the official discourses of the canon while fostering the postcolonial desire to challenge. Butler’s Fledgling and