Two test tubes were filled with 3ml of 6M HCl respectively. A piece of magnesium ribbon is dropped into one test tube and small pieces of calcium is dropped in the other test tube. The mouth of the test tubes is covered by the thumb once both the magnesium ribbon and small pieces of calcium is dropped into the test
In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and. Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
Copper/ Red Stuff/ Chemical Reaction The purpose of this experiment was to determine what the red stuff that was produced was. We put aluminum foil in a test tube filled with 100 milliliters of copper chloride. During the experiment, I observed that the aluminum foil was breaking away, the aluminum foil that was breaking away was turning into red stuff. After a while, the once light blue copper chloride was turning into a dull gray, almost clear. As the experiment went on, and as the blue copper chloride was turning clear, the reaction of the aluminum foil was slowing.
The percentage yield was a yield of 110% of the sodium acetate. A source of error that was made during this experiment was the transferring of the baking soda to the flask some of the dissolved baking soda might have still been in the beaker after it was pouring into the flask. A solution to this error would be to have better skills or to have tried to get out a much of it as we could by getting a tool to try and scrape some of it out. Another source of error that was made during this experiment was the measuring of the baking soda, so it could have been more exact. A solution to this error would have been to use more precise scales like scales that measure to 3 decimal places rather than to 1 decimal place to get a more exact value instead of a less accurate measurement.
The Z product was a liquid, while the E product was a solid. The final product weight for percent yield was only the solid E product, which missed one half of the final product produce. If both products were weight, the percent yield would have been larger that it was. Instead of 22.33%, it could have been 44.66%. To prove that both products were obtained, but only one of the two products was analyze, a TLC plate of the DCM layer, that contains both products, and of the final product, was obtain.
Universal indicator being green shows that the water is neutral 3. Sodium darting on water shows the reaction was vigorous in nature and this was also due to the fact that the hydrogen was propelling the piece in the water 4. The sodium piece becoming spherical shows that the reaction was exothermic. The heat produced melted the sodium piece and made it spherical as the melting point for sodium is low and the heat produced is sufficient to melt it . 5.
Also, salt is an ionic compound and not a polar covalent compound, even though it did not melt last, due to the fact that the elements Na and Cl, both lose or gain an electron and then bond because of their opposite charges, which is a property only ionic bonds possess. The wax was the only substance whose results were synonymous with my hypothesis, since it required a low temperature for its melting point and was not soluble in water, both properties of nonpolar covalent compounds. Potential sources of error included not labeling the spots each substance was placed in the aluminum foil boat, seeing as the result for sugar seemed to be the correct conclusion for salt and vice versa. A future experiment would involve individually testing each substance in an aluminum foil boat, of the same brand, on a heat plate in order to avoid uncertainty. Each substance should be timed to record the precise time each substance began to melt or burn.
It was able to support itself as a thin sheet, but easily fragmented when a small force was applied. 3mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide and 1mL of water, effectively 4mL of 1.5M Sodium Hydroxide, was added to a small amount of Indigo, forming a paste. Sodium Hydrosulphite the acted as a reducing agent, converting Indigo into Leucoindigo, an acidic phenolic compound that reacts with hydroxide ions provided by Sodium Hydroxide to form a water-soluble salt. The solution turns colourless, and the dying process can begin. A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C.
The mixture may have not been refluxed fully. Initially not all of the 5.0grams of benzoic acid went into the round-bottomed flask as there was still residue left on weighing boat. This would mean the starting amount of benzoic acid was less then stated. There was some product loss during the draining of the aqueous layers. All these will account for the low yield that was produced.
We measured how long it took for the high pH test tube to change color versus how long our control took. The Lugol’s Iodine test identifies for complex carbs. In our case, if the substance changed to a light brown color, the test was negative and the substance contained like glucose, and if the substance changed to a dark brown or black color, then the test was positive and the substance contained complex carbohydrates like starch. The substance with the high pH changed to a light brown at a time of 12 minutes and 49 seconds and the control changed to the same color at an earlier time of 11 minutes and 15