The actual yield is directly taken from the mass of the products in the experiment while the theoretical yield is determined by using stoichiometric calculations. To determine the theoretical yield, the reactants should be converted from grams to moles based on the coefficients in the chemical equation and the moles should be incorporated into the mass of the reactants. When calculated, this would give rise to the theoretical
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Lab Report 10: Nitration of Bromobenzene Raekwon Filmore CM 244 Section 40 March 27, 2018 Introduction: For this experiment, nitration of bromobenzene was the focus of the lab. The benzene is an aromatic compound and when it reacts with wither a mixture of sulfuric acid or nitric acid creates what is known as a nitro group. The formation of the nitro group is possible because it is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The creation of the nitronium ion is shown below: The reaction with the nitronium ion with bromobenzene creates three products instead of one. Depending on where the nitronium group or the alpha complexes of the reaction is on the ring, determines whether the product will be meta, para or ortho.
Because of this, the experiment was done at constant temperature. If solutions 1-5 had been done at different temperatures, there would not have been a way to determine the effect of the change in temperature on the magnitude of the equilibrium constant. In order to be able to determine the magnitude, the original K value would first need to be determined. Once determined and both temperatures were measured, an experiment could be done to determine the K of the second
Bromination is a type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction where one hydrogen atom of benzene or benzene derivative is replaced by bromine due to an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring. The purpose of this experiment is to undergo bromination reaction of acetanilide and aniline to form 4-bromoacetanilide and 2,4,6-tribromoaniline respectively. Since -NHCOCH3 of acetanilide and -NH2 of aniline are electron donating groups, they are ortho/para directors due to resonance stabilized structure. Even though the electron donating groups activate the benzene ring, their reactivities are different and result in the formation of different products during bromination. In acetanilide, the lone pair of the nitrogen is delocalized into the
If these unstable precursors were isolated as yilde forms, it was assumed that the value of δC of the 13CNMR chemical shift on C2-position of precursors would indicate near a value of benzo nitrile whose δC at nitrile carbon is about 120 ppm. However, δC of C2-position of the precursors were about 151 ppm. Rather, δC of C2- and C5-position of the precursors showed near a value of the chemical shift in comparison with starting materials. Furthermore, characteristic absorption peak of nitrile was not observed in IR spectral, but we viewed absorption one peak of near about 1700 cmm-1 derived from carbonyl
Oxidation is a process where an element loses electrons in a chemical reaction. These lost electrons travel into the copper in a process known as reduction. Reduction is a chemical reaction where an element gains electrons. Protons are also lost during this process, but protons cannot travel through the wire because they are very large in comparison to electrons. As a result, the protons remain in the electrolyte solution until the newly gained copper electrons pull them away from the electrolyte.
These cobalt support mixed compounds should be avoided because it does not produce the active sites for FT synthesis. Furthermore, the catalyst support can vary the diffusion of reactants and products inside the catalyst particles, the capillary condensation of the reaction products in the catalyst pores, heat dissipation and mechanical strength. The following paragraphs deal primarily support the chemical effects and texture effects in FT catalyst carrier catalytic
For an endothermic reaction, heat is absorbed in the reaction, and the value of ΔH is positive. For an exothermic reaction, the situation is just the opposite. Heat is released in the reaction, so heat is a product, and the value of ΔH is negative. If we picture heat as a reactant or a product, we can apply Le Chatelier's principle on raising or lowering concentrations. For instance, if we raise the temperature on an endothermic reaction, it is essentially like adding more reactant to the system, and therefore, by Le Chatelier's principle, the equilibrium will shift the right.
In this experiment, extraction was used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with opposite polarities are used to dissolve different parts of the solute with different polarities, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, methanol, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must also be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components. While initially it seems as though methanol, an organic solvent would be incapable of dissolving a polar acid or base, the conjugate of the acidic and basic compound will dissolve in methanol.