Ferromagnetic materials enhance the magnetic field of the electromagnet. Electromagnetic are devices that use electricity to generate a magnetic field. A magnetic field is created when the electric current flows through the entirety of the wire attached to the conductor and emitting a circular magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field is dictated by the flow of electricity. The current is strongest near the center of the conductor carrying the current of electricity.
There is a greater magnetic field magnitude if field lines are close together. Magnetic field also exerts magnetic force which is given by the equation: F=IlBsinθ where F is the magnetic force, I is the current, B is the magnetic field and θ is the angle between I and B. From the equation, magnetic force is directly proportional to current, length of current loop, magnetic field and angle which were all proven in the experiment. In order to convert magnetic force in gram to Newton, the formula g *(1kg/1000g)* 9.8m/s2 (where g is the final reading in digital balance) should be used. By performing this experiment, I was able to visualize how magnetic field looks like and what factors may affect or change magnetic force.
Many modern electric drive vehicles including electric locomotives and HEVs have regenerative braking systems.EVs use their drive motors to convert kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy Motors and generators operate under the same principle and can be used interchangeably. The First Law of Thermodynamics dictates that the EV will slow down as this occurs. The generated electrical energy can be dissipated through a resistive network (Dynamic Braking) or stored (Regenerative Braking). Vehicle has forward momentum .The wheels are coupled to the rotors of electric traction motors in an EV .Instead of a current being applied to the motor to turn the rotors, the rotors are turned by the wheels of the EV. The rotors experience opposing torque as current is induced in the motor coils.This opposing
Electric power assisted steering (EPAS): Electric power assisted steering is otherwise known as electric power steering. It is the most advanced type of steering system that is used in these modern vehicles. The main purpose of the power steering is to attenuate the driver effort required to steer the vehicles. That is the torque is applied to the steering wheel and it uses an electric motor for the same purpose. Figure 1 : electronic power steering system (crankit.in) Torque sensor The torque sensor is a most important component which is used to measure the effort applied by the driver to steer the vehicle.
The wire EDM machine was first discovered in the 1960s to fulfil the purpose of producing tools from hardened steel. The first available numeric controlled (NC) wire-cut EDM machine was manufactured in 1967. Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) (Fig.3) comes under the non-conventional machining process that uses electric power to cut any conductive material precisely and accurately using a thin, electrically charged wire serve as an electrode. During the process, the wire carries one side of the electrical charge and the workpiece carries the other. When the wire gets close to the workpiece, the attraction of electrical charges generates a controlled spark, melting and vaporizing microscopic particles form the workpiece material.
The result of this equation is the current i_a which is placed as an input to the mechanical subsystem. For the second subsystem we need the current as an input and the equation. The final result will be the angular displacements of the motor and from the arm shafts within the arm joint. The second subsystem i.e. the mechanical one is represented in the following portion of the Simulink
The hall effect was discovered by Edwin hall in 1879. He observed that when the semi conductor is placed in a magnetic field acting in the direction perpendicular to the current flowing in it then an electric fields is generated which is mutually perpendicular to current and magnetic field. The potential difference which is observed across the surface of the semi-conductor is known as hall voltage. The whole story behind the hall effect is the application of magnetic force known as Lorentz force on the moving charge carrier that is electon, which deviate the electons from its straight line motion and get deposited on one of the surface of the semi-conductor sample. In sample of semi conductors when potential across it is applied the current in it stars flowing due to the movement of electrns.
In the surface-mounted machine, two variations can exist. The magnets can be inset into the rotor or project from the surface of the rotor. These machines will be referred to as buried, inset, and projecting PM machines, respectively. Buried PM machines are more difficult to construct than either the inset or projecting surface-mounted machines. In addition, epoxy glue is used to fix the magnets to the rotor surface in the inset and projecting surface-mounted machines.
Power supply becomes an important part in the world of electronics that serves as a source of electricity. The power supply can also be used as a device that supplies electrical energy for one or more electrical loads. There are two main methods used to regulate and stabilize direct current voltages. A common type of use is linear power supply that still survives for simple power requirements. Furthermore, for the great power needs of the system (Switching Mode Powersupply Units (SMPU) .This linear power supply uses 78xx regulator IC as a voltage regulator IC 78XX is a positive voltage regulator with 3 terminals, each input, ground,