The mixture will be place in separatory funnel enabling separation of one layer from the other—the lower, denser layer can be drained out of the bottom of the separatory funnel, leaving behind the upper layer.
Due to water’s polar structure, ions in some compounds attract and form bonds with water molecules, forming hydrates. A hydrate is a salt that has water molecules trapped within its crystals. Every hydrate has a certain number of water molecules weakly bonded to the salt as follows: salt • number of water molecules Anhydrous salts are salts that can form hydrates but which have had all the water driven off, usually by heat. By heating the Copper (II) sulphate hydrate until its color changes from blue to white, the compound can be decomposed into CuSO4, a white crystal, and H2O gas, represented as follows: CuSO4 • xH2O(s)
Shown below is the final product. Usually during a chemical reaction it is understable for there to a noticeable change, which is why it was expected to see a foggy white color during the reaction. But it was unexpected for the reaction to take as long as it did (about 45 minutes) and for the zinc to start clumping together. CuSO4(aq) +Zn(s) Cu(s) +ZnSO4(aq) Washing with
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
We then added 10cm3 ethanoic anhydride to the salicylic acid and swirled the contents, this mixes together the two chemicals. We then added 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the flask and thoroughly swirled the mixture, this creates the solution that makes the aspirin. We then warmed the flask for 20 minutes in a 400cm3 beaker of hot water which was approximately 60°C, we made sure the flask did not go above 65°C because this could have caused the contents to evaporate. Part 2: Using a 25cm3 measuring cylinder we measured out 15cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube and then prepared a beaker half filled with hot water at approx. 75°C, we got this temperature by filling the beaker with cold water and slowly adding boiling water from a kettle until we reached the right temperature.
Leavening agents are substances that, through the release of gases, cause doughs and batters to rise. Alkaline means that a substance has the opposite effect of an acid. Baking soda is a white alkaline powder. It contains one ingredient, sodium bicarbonate, a base that reacts by releasing carbon dioxide in the form of bubbles when it comes in contact with acids, such as buttermilk, coffee, and brown sugar. Baking soda is made from sodium
This conversion was required to perform a conjugated addition of the alpha-carbon of acetone to 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, resulting in formation of an aldol, which is subsequently converted to Indoxyl. 5mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide was diluted by the presence of 35mL of water, effectively reducing its concentration to 0.25M. A low hydroxide ion concentration was required to prevent aldol from condensing, which will result in the hydroxyl group leaving as water. Ethanol was subsequently added to reduce the time required for drying
Sodium bromide and 1-butanol are dissolved in water since the bromide ion from the sodium bromide and the four carbon chain from the 1-butanol are the desired components of 1-bromobutane. In order to get the sodium bromide and the 1-butanol to react sulfuric acid is added to react with the sodium bromide and combine with the sodium ion producing hydro-bromic acid. Later, when the flask is heated the bromide ion will be able to combine with the four carbon chain of the 1-butanol. During the process of this reaction the reagents were kept cool in an ice bath to avoid the possible evaporation of any of the solution.
When droplets of hydrophobic oil are suspended in water, the very polar water molecules which attract each other very strongly, in a very short time squeeze out the nonpolar oil molecules, causing them to coalesce and float to the top. When an emulsifying agent like detergent is added, a suitable emulsion of alkyl benzene results with specific gravity of 0.856 (Whitten et al, 1985); the detergents are usually large chemical of sodium salt like sodium lauryl benzene sulfonate, with a polar head and non-polar tail, and if added to oil-water mixture in the pore and shaken vigorously, will form a fine emulsion, which is safely flushed out into drains or released into the environment (Whitten et al,
Before starting the heating process, measure the weight of the crucible with its cover first and then tare the balance, and after that adding about 1 gram of the sample to the crucible with its cover, and then weigh it. Moreover, it is possible liberating harmful gases during the process of heating; therefore, being careful is important. The heating process ends when this sample changes the color to brown because water of hydration is removed to the sample. Additionally, give time to the small cool down and measure its weight. Next, transfer the sample to a 50 mL beaker and mixes with distilled water, which gets by rinsing the crucible with its cover in 8mL, so the solution is generated.
The fatty acids in these are then made into fatty alcohols then undergo another process to sulfonate them into crystalline salt. Sodium Laureth Sulphate is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate that has been through a process called ethoxylation. Honestly (October 2015). Stacey Rosenberg (02/11/2014) Benzoyl Peroxide