The simplest lipids made from fatty acids are triacylglycerols or triglycerides. Triacylglycerols are fatty acid that is composed of three fatty acids each in ester linkage with a glycerol. The term “Saponification” literally means "soap making". It is the hydrolysis of fats or oils under basic conditions to get the glycerol and the salt of the corresponding fatty acid. Saponification is important to the industrial user for it helps to know the amount of free fatty acid that is present in a food material.
Analytical indices related to fats and oils can be distinguished as structure or quality indices. Structure indices are the iodine value (IV), a measure of total unsaturation of an oil or fat; the saponification value (SV), an indicator of average M.W. ; and the hydroxyl value (HV), which is applicable to fatty compounds (or their mixtures) containing (Knothe, 2002). Saponification is the hydrolysis of fats or oils under basic conditions to afford glycerol and the salt of the corresponding fatty acid (Chalmers and Bathe, 1978). The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the fatty acids resulting from the complete hydrolysis of 1g of fat.
Gastric chief cells also secrete gastric lipase which continue the digestion of triglycerides into diglycerides, monoglyceride and free fatty acids. The lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of milk triglycerides into free fatty acids, monoglycerides and glycerol is essential for eﬃcient absorption of the fat by enterocytes. The stomach churns the milk, and the milk leaves the stomach as liquid called chyme. The chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum of the small intestine. When chyme enters the duodenum, the duodenum secretes the hormone cholecystokinin.
If the solute was wholly dissolved in the solvent before heating, it was recorded as a bad solvent. If the solute dissolved after being warmed in a water bath, it was set aside to cool to allow recrystallization; if their recrystallization occurred or not was recorded. If the crystals did not form previous to heating, the solution was placed in ice bath. After the ice bath, if the recrystallization did not occur then it was seeded. After completion of the solubility tests, the appropriate solvent, cyclohexane, was selected for large-scale recrystallization.
Due to water’s polar structure, ions in some compounds attract and form bonds with water molecules, forming hydrates. A hydrate is a salt that has water molecules trapped within its crystals. Every hydrate has a certain number of water molecules weakly bonded to the salt as follows: salt • number of water molecules Anhydrous salts are salts that can form hydrates but which have had all the water driven off, usually by heat. By heating the Copper (II) sulphate hydrate until its color changes from blue to white, the compound can be decomposed into CuSO4, a white crystal, and H2O gas, represented as follows: CuSO4 • xH2O(s) ←⎯→ CuSO4(s) + xH2O(g) Because of the mass conservation law and the fixed proportion of water molecules, the mole of H2O can be calculated by calculating the mass difference of the substance before and after the reaction: Mole of H2O = (Mass of substance before the reaction) (Mass
Application of LLE 1) LLE is commonly used in petroleum industry to separate the heat-sensitive liquid. 2) LLE also can be used in pharmaceutical or biochemical industry for separation of antibiotics. 3) To separate the mixtures that contain high boiling point such as
Soap emulsifies grime, which means oily stains bind to the soap so they can be lifted away with water. Detergents act as surfactants, lowering the surface tension of water so it can interact with oils, isolate them, and rinse them away. The Chemical Volcano. Whenever you combine milk with baking powder in a recipe, you witness a metathesis reaction or a double displacement. The ingredients recombine and make carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) which can be seen by the bubbles formed in the
What is Saponification? Saponification is the procedure that produces soap from fats and lye. In this chemical reaction we used Sodium Hydroxide which is our base to convert fats or oil as an acid to soap, this happens when the fats or oil gets in touch with Sodium Hydroxide or lye and this turns on the Saponification process. When the Saponification process is turned on, it means lye is converting the oil or the fat to a more uniform and thicker solution, it is having a point which is called Trace point. Trace point the end point, if we add any extra material it will not be chemically mixed with our soap solution it will just stay there.
Observations Step Observation Adding sulfuric acid into the alcohol and carboxylic acid solution Surface of the round bottom flask is warm Poring the ester solution in the bottle after reflux Dense gas can be seen Washing the ester with distilled water The ester layer is immiscible with distilled water. Washing the ester with sodium carbonate solution Effervescence -bubbles of gas produced -a ‘pop’ sound could be heard when the separating funnel is closed and opened again. The ester layer is immiscible with the sodium carbonate solution Adding anhydrous calcium chloride into the ester solution Heat would be produced as the surface of the conical flask feels warm. Anhydrous calcium chloride crystals would clump up after swirling. Distillation of ester solution after the washings At first the solution slowly condenses out but as the temperature increases, the solution condenses very fast.