The pyruvate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to produce C02 and H+ which is used to reduce NAD. This forms acetate which taken by coenzyme A (coA) recycled from Kreb’s cycle to form acetyl coA. No ATP is produced or used in this stage so the net total of ATP is still 2. There is now 4 carbon. The third stage is the Kreb’s cycle, acetyl coA enters the Kreb’s cycle by combining with a 4C acid to form a 6C compound (citrate).
b) Discuss the NADH, FADH2, production steps in the TCA cycle and explain the importance of the TCA cycle to function respiratory chain. The citric acid cycle refers to the first components that create during the cycle’s reactions- citrate / in it are protonated form citric acids. However series of reactions known as tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycles, for three carboxyl groups on its primary 2 intermediates or the kreb cycles, after its discoverer Hans Krebs. Whatever citric cycles is a central driver of cellular respirations, it obtains acetyl co-A produced by the oxidation of pyruvate and originally derived from glucose as its starting material and in a series of redox reactions. Gather a large amount of it is bond energy in form of NADH,
Glucose, which is a six-carbon sugar, is at that moment divided into two molecules of a three carbon sugar. The breaking down of glucose, takes place in the cell’s cytoplasm. Glucose and oxygen are produced from this breakage, and are supplied to cells by the bloodstream. Also produced by glycolysis are, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 high energy electron carrying molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Glycolysis happens with or without the presence of oxygen.
The reaction the occurred in the experiment was a reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol to form isopentyl acetate and water. The esterification of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol occurs in four steps. The first step in the reaction mechanism is the protonation of acetic acid with a proton from the concentrated sulfuric acid that was added to the reaction mixture. In the second step, acetic acid reacts with the isopentyl alcohol to form a reaction intermediate which undergoes proton transfer or rearrangement protonation. Water acts as a leaving group in the third step and is removed from the reaction intermediate.
With reference to its higher concentration, lactate would be the primary monocarboxylate diffusing to mitochondria with the use of MCT1 as mentioned above. Once in the mitochondria, namely in the matrix, mitochondrial LDH catalyses the conversion of lactate back to pyruvate. The pyruvate is oxidized through the PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) reaction to acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA would then continue through the TCA cycle so as to provide energy. (Kowalchuk JM et al,
Glycolysis, or anaerobic respiration, is the first phase of sugar breakdown at the cellular level. Simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose are converted to a three carbon compound called pyruvate. Because this process occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen, it is termed anaerobic. The net energy yield from anaerobic respiration is two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, which is a metabolic dead end.
Hence, catalysts have been used for the production of fuels (via catalytic cracking, reforming), synthesis gas (by steam reforming), fine chemicals (by oxidation), polymers and sugar to ethanol, ethanol to acetic acid (fermentation process by enzyme catalyst). In early 1836, a scientist Jons Jakob Berzelius was introduced the term “catalysis” to explain various transformation and decomposition reactions. He assumed that catalysts possess special powers that can influence the affinity of chemical substances. In short, catalysis is vitally important for our economics of today and it will become increasingly important in the future. Once catalysis reactions were understood, scientists discovered many reactions that changed rates in presence of catalysts.
Production of Acrylonitrile using Ammoxidation of Propylene Almost 90% of world production of acrylonitrile (AN) was produced by ammoxidation of propylene process also known as SOHIO process (Standard oil of OHIO). The main chemical reaction and the side reaction occurred in ammoxidation process happen as listed below: Main Chemical reaction: C_3 H_6+ 〖NH〗_3+ 〖3⁄2 O〗_2 → C_3 H_3 N+ 〖3H〗_2 O Propylene+Ammonia+Oxygen →Acrylonitrile+Water (1) Side Reaction: C_3 H_6+ 〖NH〗_3+ 〖9/4 O〗_2 → C_2 H_3 N+ 〖3H〗_2 O+ 〖1/2 CO〗_2+1/2 CO Propylene+Ammonia+Oxygen→Acetonitrile+Water+Carbon dioxide+Carbon monoxide (2) C_2 H_3 N+ 〖3/2 O〗_2 → HCN+ H_2 O+ 〖CO〗_2 Acetonitrile+Oxygen →Hydrogen Cyanide+Water+Carbon dioxide (3) Combustion
There are many types of reaction for carboxylic acid. First or fore, acyl chlorides can be prepared by treating the carboxylic acid with SOCl2 and in the presence of base. This reaction is called nucleophilic acyl substitution. The next reaction is the nucleophilic acyl substitution. The amide can be prepared through this reaction.