Malaysia’s brain drain is intensive, not necessarily because of too many are leaving the country but because the skills base is too narrow. This is aggravated by the lack of compensating inflows, since the skill profile of immigrant is Malaysia is geared to the low end. The intensity of the brain drain is mitigated by the fact that a substantial share of the skilled diaspora acquired their education overseas, lowering the fiscal costs for Malaysia but also making it less likely for them to return as they spent their many years abroad. To overcome the brain drain issue, Malaysia needs to understand and tackle the underlying determinants of brain drain. Individual respond to incentives and discentives, these are the push and pull factors that drive the migration decision.
Malaysia’s population has increased steadily due to the improvement and well-developed health care system, women status, literacy, modern infrastructure and having clean water and sanitation as well as many programs introduced to reduce the poverty in the country. Correspond to Malaysia’s rapid urbanization and modernization; the proportion of urban population has increased tremendously. The urbanization process in Malaysia is influenced by natural increase and net migration. Nowadays, more populations in Malaysia are moving to urban areas which results in an increase of demand for more houses, schools and employment. The urban expansion brought about by the increasing economic opportunities attracted migrants into the country which leads to
It started to export garments in the mid-1990s, but after quota restriction of the Multilateral Agreement (MFA) was removed in 2005, it cause the country face the increased competition in the global market ("Enhancing Export Competitiveness the Key to Cambodia’s Future Economic Success", 2016). This sector is based on low wages, more labor and a liberal trade and investment regime which causes this intensive industry has grown in Cambodia and has become a major source of foreign investors. Mostly, Investors also brought technology and supervisory personnel from overseas to help solve Cambodia's disadvantages such as in infrastructure and human capital. Unlike other country, Cambodia started garment industry because the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) which cause the garment sector are insufficient in the domestic supply chain and supporting industries like textile industry. These insufficient causes the industry need to import raw materials, fabric and other inputs from another country instead mainly from China, Hong Kong ("Enhancing Export Competitiveness The Key to Cambodia’s Future Economic Success", 2016).
Although it is still crucial to point out, that markets are still developing, and as the product demand keeps rising, the production has been moved to developing countries, where exploitation is the main reason behind terrible living and working conditions, and often child labour. Furthermore, even if living conditions have improved in developed countries, this uneven distribution of power is still present and resulting in social inequality, as for example regarding education, even though more students from lower and middle classes are more likely to get a higher education today than just half a century ago. By looking at the subdivision of students in universities in the U.S., for example economic resources are often the reason behind why students from working-class families are lesser than students from higher-class families. Financial resources play a crucial role: in the U.S. students will usually have to take big loans in order to attend their studies, but these loans are usually difficult to pay back, once that students are done with their education. It often takes several years to pay them back.
There has been a basic difference in the processes of migration in developing countries from that of thedeveloped countries. In developing countries like India, migration mostly takes place not due to the so called pull forces of the destination place as usually happens in case of developed countries, but because of poverty, unemployment, natural calamities and underdevelopment at the origin place. Migration in developing countries is still viewed as a survival strategy. Poverty and prosperity both are responsible for inducing migration. While the former is mostly true in developing countries, the latter kind of migration is found in developed countries.Migration and development is a growing area of interest.
The statement evidently proves that the demand for foreign construction workers is tremendously high, due to the shortage of local workers. Another cause of labor shortage is local preferences. The locals refuse to work at construction sites generally because they prefer easier jobs. This is especially true when they have higher education levels, which enable them to demand for jobs that have good image
They believed that this could be achieved through woman empowerment, education, urbanization and industrialisation (Hunter, 1976).Women empowerment meant that women would be given an equal chance to participate in the labour market thus be economically independent, can engage in the household decision-making process and have the power to determine when and how many children they want to have thus affecting the fertility levels of that country (Phan, 2013). Education plays a huge role in the decline of fertility. A higher level of education meant that people would spend longer time in school and delay marriages and childbearing, it also was associated with rising socioeconomic status and greater awareness of the economic costs of bringing up children (Gould, 2009) .There is then a stronger preference for having smaller families and widening the birth intervals between
In this article, cosmetic industry in Hong Kong is chosen for further analysis. Similar to the development of cosmetics industry in Malaysia, the cosmetics industry in Hong Kong is also in rapid growth because of the increasing number of working female, increased urbanization, and the increasing self-awareness due to education. “This industry
It led to unemployment. The establishment of foreign companies implies new technologies were going to be used and Kosovo being a poor country did not have these technologies to train the workers. This led to the employment of foreigners into these companies and increased the unemployment rate of the country. It also caused income inequality. Income was distributed to workers based on their skilled levels which widened the gap between the rich and the
Wholesale or retail trading (20%) 5. Contracting (15%) There are several reasons for the implementation of Omanization policy and the most important: Allow the sultanate to rely on Self-resources in human resources, which requires the been of women from the workforce and this gives them an important role in society. Omanization in private Companies in Muscat reached 8.6% In 1995 the policy of Omanization led to a shortage of expatriate Workers. The proportion of Spending in The private Sector fell to (81.66-85.2) between 1995 and 1998. Many of the government ministries have already reached 100% Omanization And the highest percentage in the government sector is the Al Dakhiliyah government where the rate of Omanization where 24% Omanization rate in the Dhofar government sector was 6.6% https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~deflu20a/classweb/omanization 25/7/207 3:45 pm Data analysis Table 1 Female Male Total Number 5 5 10 % 50% 50% 100%