For example , in Malacca and Betong on 13 Mei 1969, there was a race riots between Chinese and Malay. Malaysia has a population of 23.27 million consisting of 61 percent Malays, 30 percent Chinese, 8 percent Indians and 1 percent of other ethnic groups. Malaysia is unique because of its diversity of races, religions and cultures, the stability of the country and many places of interests. Besides, there are many international achievements which are the pride of our nation.
Because of its central location between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, Malaysia has literally become a meeting point for traders and travellers from both the East and West. As this goes on, Malaysia has a multicultural and multiracial population consisting of Malays, Chinese, Indians and few local peoples. Although Malay is the official language, English is also widely spoken, especially when people are discussing about business. English is also important in Malaysia; it is a compulsory subject in all school in Malaysia. With such a varying ethnic composition, it is no surprise that Malaysia has multiple religions.
Since the period of Islamization, Arts and Tourism Ministry focused on the latest dances Portuguese, the Middle East, or the Mongol origin. Malay traditional dances include joget melayu and zapin. In recent years, dikir bars has grown in popularity, and is actively promoted by the state as a cultural icon. Silat is a Malay martial arts and dance form, believed to increase the spiritual power of the people. The Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet theater) has been popular in Malaysia for centuries(Miller; Terry; Williams; Sean, 2008).
In Java, the cultural diffusion of Islam can be seen. The many mosques that stand in Java show that cultures that practice Islam influenced the culture of Indonesian groups through cultural diffusion. Cultural diffusion can also be seen in Indonesian food. Chinese dishes, such as dim sum, are often made in Indonesia. This shows the contribution of the Chinese culture to cultural diffusion.
The Malacca Sultanate is one of the oldest Malay Sultanate in the history of Malaysia. Previously, the Malacca Malay Sultanate was a heritage of Srivijaya which the center was in Palembang, Southeast Sumatra. This empire existed between the seventh century and the 13th century. Historically, Malacca was found in early 15th century, in 1931, the Srivijaya kingdom was attacked by Majapahit which led Parameswara (Prince of Palembang) and his followers escape and they eventually reached Temasik (Singapore) . At that time, Singapore already had its own political system under the control of the Siamese kingdom of the Ayudhya.
2. Takaful Industry in Malaysia 2.1. Introduction in a part of Malaysian history Malaysia has declared its independence from the British in 1957. Since then, the constitution of Malaysia states that 'Islam is the religion of the Federation' (hence it is not secular state), thanks to the efforts of the First Malaysian Prime minister Mr. Tunku Abdul Rahman together with United Malay National Organization (UMNO) and despite the opposition of the Reid Commission. Also, the person must be a Muslim if he/she wants to be Malay and Malay has been declared the national language of the State (according to article 152).⁹ Lembaga Tabung Haji (LTH) was the first Islamic institution established in Malaysian financial system in 1969.
Another feature of Islamic identity in Mataram kingdom is ‘Sultan’ tittle which is obtained from Ulama in holy city Makkah, previously the kings of Mataram tittled ‘Sasuhunan’ which means the guardian of Allah. (Purwadi, 2010:313). Under such circumstances, the Islamization of Javanese society was inevitable accross the Mataram land. As the successor of Mataram kingdom, actually both Yogyakarta and Solo are the political product of Giyanti agremeent in the 1755. The internal war within Mataram kingdom and the friction among the princes especially between Prince of Mangkubumi and Pakubuwana III for the throne led to political compromy namely Giyanti agremeent.
Local residents familiar with their local language, they communicate by mixing the Malay and English at the same time. Since we are young, we convey our idea by the language that we are familiar. In Malaysia, there are many languages using by the resident. Among this, Malay is the main language and English is the second language other than Mandarin or Tamil that using by resident. Unconspicuously, they will express their feeling and thinking with the most comfortable language.
“To survive in peace and harmony,united and strong,we must have one people,one nation,one flag” Malaysian must grasp those words to live by. Malaysia is a multi-racial,multi-cultural and multi-religion country with a population of about 20 million people who practice various religions. The fact that Malaysia practices mixed religion makes it have a unique Malaysian culture. The first wave of Han Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century. The friendly diplomatic relations between China and Malacca culminated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah,who married the Chinese princess Hang Li Po.
Without any doubt, the colonial masters in the past apparently imposed their influence on the architectural development of the nation. In addition, Malaysia is a multiracial nation with a population mostly made up of Malays, Chinese, Indians and other smaller communities. Therefore, its architectural development is largely influenced by different cultures. The migration of Chinese and Indians in colonial times was influenced by the determination to seek economic status and political role. Culture, customs and traditions of these immigrants have an impact on local architecture of the developing nation.