Malay is a language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, and Thailand. Malay comes from Austronesian languages which are divided into four groups. They are Indonesian, Malanesian, Autronesian, and Polynesian. Malay or Bahasa Melayu is a national language in Malaysia and it is used as a language instruction in education, in formal or informal settings or events. Malay and English language even differ in their origin and history.
Language and culture are mutually inclusive entities; one can exist concurrently in the presence of another. Therefore the translation of local culture through the foreign language perpetuates local colors. The Pakistani post-colonial writers used the English language as a mean of explicating local ethos, which resulted into pidiginization as well. Every language is rule governed and culturally specific and eventually restricts the writers to explicate cross cultural conceptions. However, these constraints are observed in the Post- colonial literature, for instance; Ahmad Ali in his novel, Twilight in Delhi illustrates: zanan Khana, Mardan Khana, rakhail, Hakeem’ and so on which highlights sociolinguistic limitations of English.
Research Questions From the literature review, it was established that there were several factors affecting language learning and acquisition. More specifically, it was revealed that factors such as exposure at an early age, motivation, attitudes, incentives and educational system can influence language acquisition. However, most of the research were conducted in the west and were focused on students as subjects to the study and foreigners working in the country where they need to learn the language to lengthen their range of employment opportunity. As the AEC is fast approaching, it was rationalized that it is beneficial to know the English language readiness of the Thai people, especially those directly working with English speaking ASEAN
Speakers of different languages are constantly changing registers from their native language to foreign language. This is called “code-switching”. It is used either for expressing something that has not the same meaning as in your native language, for replacing a word or maybe just because we are very familiar with one language that we shift to by accident. Besides, “studies shows that bicultural bilinguals may exibit different verbal behaviors in their two languages and may be perceived differently by their interlocutors depending on the language they use in a particular cotext” . As the writer suggests, for these bilinguals “the two languages may be linked to different linguistic repertoires, cultural scripts, frames or expectation, autobiographic memories, and levels of proficiency and
In the 18th century English grammar books were being published, which added a greater demand on vocabulary in vernacular. This demand increased as the vernacular lexicon began to stabilize. Dictionaries were still elementary with only a short meaning, synonym or commentary on a ward.it was the grammarians who were still making decisions about language usage. Grammarians had been experiencing within their own ranks for sometime. Many linguistics were afraid that the English would be corrupted, and some expressed the concern that what was being written at that time would would be unrecognizable to future generations.
2002, p.118-199) explains in internal and final positions, voiceless [θ] sound like [t] or [f], as in [baf] (SE: bath) and [wit]/[wif] (SE: with), while in word initial positions the [θ] does not change. She also says, if the voiced [ð] occurs in Standard English, it is realized as [d] or [v], usually in word initial or final positions. The liquid sounds [r] and [l] are often vocalized, meaning they sound more like vowels than consonants, as in [floə] (SE: floor) or [hɛp] (SE: help) (cf. Edwards 2008, p.186). He mentions, [l] could turn into [w] after back vowels ([bew] (SE: bell)).
A study of the similarities and differences between idioms in Vietnamese and English is helpful to perceive each country’s knowledge and their own cultures, which reflects dissimilarities and coincidences of the two countries. In addition, making a comparison can be a perfect idea to study and master English. Introduction What are idioms? Vietnamese idioms. Vietnamese idioms are a group of special words or phrases whose meaning isn’t clear and meaningful from looking at the individual words or just a glance.
The enclosure of distinct portions of language X into a sentence that else goes to language Y. Addition of words from one language into organization of another language .INVOLVING A CHANGE OF PRONUNCIATION: This category of code mixing befalls at the phonological level, as when Indonesian individual say an English word, but adapt it to Indonesian phonological organization. For case in point, the word “strawberry” is said to be “stroberi” by Indonesian masses. The usage of component from, either language in a structure that is entirely or moderately shared by languages X or Y. INTRA-SENTENTIAL: The sequence of fragments in language X and Y in a sentence, which is generally not identifiable as belonging to either X, or Y and do come over again. `That’s all right then, and do come over