Male Infertility Literature Review

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Abstract: The purpose of this review was to determine the contribution of different factors which may promote the ratio of infertility in male. Many studies have supported that different factors such as infections, smoking, alcohol, pesticides, and different environmental and nutritional factors reversibly or irreversibly influence the male fertility.
Key words: Male infertility, Reactive oxygen species, Varicocele, spermatogenesis, Genetic factor, antioxidant,
Infertility
According to WHO, “Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve spontaneous pregnancy in one year” (WHO, 1995)
Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility (de Kretser DM. et al, 1997). Male infertility may be due to acquired or congenital conditions. About 15-30% of male are infertile due to genetical reasons (Ferlin A et al 2007). The prevalence rate of infertility is found in both developed and developing countries. To assess the infertility in male, medical history and physical examination including semen analysis is performed, After semen analysis, an infertile male may present with following conditions: (a) oligozoospermia (decreased number of spermatozoa), (b) teratozoospermia (many abnormal sperms), (c)
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Hypothalamus secretes two gonadotropin hormones i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), these hormones control the production and release of gonadotropin hormones in the early stages of puberty, level of these hormones start rising and thus helps the testes to grow and mature. LH is needed for the Leydig cells in the testes to make testosterone, the male sex hormone. Testosterone plays an important role in the physical changes occurring during puberty. FSH and testosterone act together in seminiferous tubules to make
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