Malaria Cycle In The Body

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MALARIA – THE PATHOLOGICAL CYCLE

GENERAL PATHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT
B. VAN NUGTEREN
DUE DATE: 7 SEPTEMBER 2015
SUBMISSION DATE: 12 APRIL 2015

MIKAYLA VAN WELIE
201470536

Table of Contents

Introduction 3
Malaria Cycle In The Body 3
Characteristics Of Plasmodium Falciparum 3
Cytoadherence 3
Innate Immune Response 4
Specific Immune Response 4
Complications 4
Cerebral Malaria 4
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) 5
Kidney Function 5
Liver Function 5
Other Effects 6
Anaemia & Thrombocytopenia 6
Hypoglycaemia 6
Conclusion 7
References 8 INTRODUCTION

Malaria is a parasitic disease that causes great injury to the
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There are two main mechanisms involved in developing anaemia: increased destruction of RBCs (due to phagocytosis or immune-mediated lysis) and a decrease in the production of RBCs. Co-morbidities also play a role in RBC count. Infected RBCs rupturing is the chief cause of malarial anaemia. Phagocytosis and complement system activation are the main players of non-specific immune controlled clearance of RBCs. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators also play a role in developing anaemia. The spleen plays a large role in malarial anaemia. The spleen removes infected RBCs and excess RBCs, and therefore directly affects the degree of anaemia. Micronutrient malnutrition may also play a role in anaemia; a lack of Vitamins A and E, as well a lack of iron and zinc reduced the amount of RBCs in the blood (by affecting RBC production).

Thrombocytopenia is also common in malaria patients. It is common in the early stages of infection. It is normally caused by coagulation disturbances, platelet destruction by macrophages, anti-body mediated platelet destruction and platelet aggregation. Although common symptoms of thrombocytopenia include haemorrhagic incidents, this is rare in malaria and is only normally seen in conjunction with disseminated intravascular coagulation
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