He reported that the intervals between the episodes of biliary colic decreased from one time every 10 days until it became daily. Also, the attack of biliary colic was relieved by intramuscular injection of antispasmodics and analgesics at first, but they weren’t effective anymore. The option of cholecystectomy was discussed and the patient agreed. Pre-operative laboratory investigations revealed normal kidney function, normal blood picture and elevated liver enzymes and elevated bilirubin (AST=174 u/L), (ALT=399 u/L), (GGT=206 u/L), (Alkaline phosphatase=147 u/L), (Direct bilirubin=2.0 mg/dl) and (Indirect bilirubin= 0.6 mg/dl). The patient was admitted to gastrointestinal endoscopy unit for Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
Radiation exposure may result in thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and hypothyroidism. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms is more common after childhood than adult radiation exposure and is, in part, related to radiation dose. High-dose head and neck radiation also increases the risk of hypothyroidism. Low-dose (environmental radiation) exposure may increase the possibility of developing markers of autoimmune thyroid disease, although the evidence for this and developing hypothyroidism are conflicting (Schneider,
Often times, patients will undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before getting surgery to remove it entirely. However, this is not the only way different treatments are used in conjunction with one another. By carefully assessing the location, size, and stage of the tumor and analyzing the patient’s medical history, age, symptoms, and a variety of other factors, oncologists will design an efficient treatment plan with the least amount of
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy allows earlier oral intake, shortens hospital stay, enhances earlier return to normal activity , minimal postoperative pain, and improves cosmesis over open cholecystectomy. Thus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has continued to gain widespread clinical approval, and it is now the standard procedure for benign diseases of the gallbladder; However, there is still a substantial percent of patients in whom Laparoscopic cholecystectomy cannot be successfully done and for whom conversion to open surgery is required. A previous abdominal surgery has been reported as a relative contraindication to Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Previous abdominal surgery particularly is associated with difficult insertion of the initial trocar and obtaining adequate exposure to the gallbladder. The potential risk for injury of organs adherent to the abdominal wall during Veress needle or trocar insertion as well as the necessity for adhesiolysis and its attendant complications are the two major specific problems limiting surgeons from acting laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with previous abdominal
The aneurysm will be watched for sign of changes, by closely monitoring your thoracic aortic aneurysm with CT or MRI scans on a regular basis or every 6-12 months. High blood pressure is one of the particular symptoms of thoracic aortic aneurysm, if you have high blood pressure, your physician will prescribe blood pressure medication for you to lower at least your overall blood pressure and in the weakened area of the aneurysm. And there is this thing called a “statin” (or cholesterol lowering medication) to maintain the health of your blood vessels. 2. Surgical Repair If the thoracic aortic aneurysm become larger or you are already causing symptoms, you will need a quick treatment to prevent a rupture from occurring.
This type of anemia is mostly found in people with long-lasting problems like cancer, congestive heart failure, or inflammatory diseases. Based on the amount of your hemoglobin in blood, doctors rate the condition of your anemia. Doctors make use of this ranking of anemia with regards to the treatment although the signs that they have observed from you are not the same. When your hemoglobin is between 10 and is lower than the limit for your age and sex, it is classified as mild anemia. When your hemoglobin is 8 to 10 grams per deciliter, it is classified as moderate anemia.
Cervical cancer is found through a Pap smeat test and can be effectively treated if found in it’s early stages. Cervical cancer begins as a neoplastic change in the cervical epithelium and ultimately involves the full thickness of the epithelium. An aggressive tumor forms in a cauliflower shape, with a fragile texture and a hard, nodular edge. Cervical cancer has no distinguishing or distinctive symptoms. Bleeding, which begins as a blood tinge discharge and progresses to spotting and frank bleeding, is the only significant sign.
Articles that focused on possible causes of autism and their effect on the number of diagnosed cases over the last few decades were selected. Results: Some of the causes of the increase in diagnosed cases of autism include changes in diagnostic criteria, extensive research, increase in the use of infant feeding formula, pre/peri/post-natal injuries and exposure to infections. Some of these causes play larger roles than others. Conclusion: Although various factors have contributed to the increase in autism in the last few decades, the major contributing factors are extensive research which has allowed for a better understanding and diagnosing of Autism and the changes in diagnostic criteria of Autism Keywords: Autism, incidence of autism, prevalence of autism, Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4/5, Autism diagnostic criteria, environmental toxins and autism, autism research. Ultramini Abstract: There has been an alarming increase in Autism over the last few years.
Literature reveals that the incidence of infections is higher in the 2 years following the surgery, especially from pneumococcal infections. The management of splenectomized patients is critical in reducing the risk of post-infections. This involves: providing adequate education to the patient with regard to the immunological function of the spleen and the risk of infection by encapsulated bacteria, vaccination and antibiotic prophylaxis as the cornerstone of preventative treatment against these
It is also proposed that using IL-2 levels for diagnosis has greater specificity and sensitivity compared to those using oligoclonal immunoglobulins or FLCIg. ( Oehninger-Gatti C,) There are reports claiming that an increase in the concentration of some oxidative stress markers can be detected in body fluids of patients with MS. At last, some studies published Within the last decade, suggest a relation between viral infections and MS, (Nahid Akhyani, )many of them suggesting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a potential etiologic factor in MS (8), but still no specific viral agent has been definitively found to cause