Nipple Discharge Research Paper

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d. nipple discharge-Nipple discharge is fairly common. Discharge is usually a benign condition if it is elicited and occurs in both nipples or from multiple ducts. Unilateral nipple discharge is more concerning, and any spontaneous discharge from either breast requires further investigation. Most concerning is red (bloody) or clear.
e. skin changes-The mammographer should note any bulging of the skin, protruding areas that change the shape of the breast, and any swelling. Skin changes associated with irritation, such as redness, rashes, or bumps, often are seen on digital mammograms due to image manipulation or post processing features.
f. nipple and areolar changes- The mammographer should look for indentations, retraction, and dimpling of
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documentation of medical history and clinical findings- documentation must meet the Mammography Quality Standards Act, or MQSA, standards and clinical guidelines. Mammographers are responsible for verifying orders from the referring health care provider. In addition, they should communicate and document any concerns regarding new information discovered at the time of the patient’s appointment. Mammographers also must ensure that verbal orders and instructions are clearly documented in the patient's health record, including the rationale for additional projections or imaging. A large part of the documentation is the facility's information form and health history questionnaire.

4. previous mammograms
a. review prior to exam-Prior breast images may be pre-fetched to the workstation from radiology or hospital information systems for comparison. In some facilities this pre-fetching may be a manual process. The mammographer also should review prior mammograms to determine the densest part of the breast for proper AEC detector location, proper positioning techniques, and any potentional problem areas within the breast positioning/exam.
b. verify for interpreting physician- In general, the mammographer should document all findings related to the patient's breast health and mammography visit, including findings the mammographer observes visually, those reported by the patient, and those identified through breast palpation. A thorough patient history provides the radiologist with important
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tissue expander-If the patient requires a surgery in which breast tissue is removed, the patient can choose to have reconstructive surgery. If a patient requests to unable to undergo skin-sparing breast surgery, a temporary tissue expander often is used to prepare the skin and muscle for reconstruction.
b. Implant-Breast augmentation involves subpectoral or subglandular implantation of a prosthetic breast filled with saline or silicone. The procedure is used to reconstruct the breasts following a mastectomy or for cosmetic reasons. Breast implants do not increase breast cancer risk, and women who have breast augmentation can have screening or diagnostic mammograms.
c. TRAM flap-A number of reconstruction techniques are available including breast implants or tissue replacement using the patient’s tissue from other areas of their body. Some examples of tissue replacement include the TRAM Flap, using the transverse rectus abdominis muscle, the DIEP flap, using the deep inferior epigastric perforator, the SGAP or IGAP flap, using skin, fat and gluteus maximus muscle from the buttock, or the TUG flap using the transverse upper gracilis muscle from the inner upper
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