Abstract — Brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose edema and tumor in a quantitative way. The primary aim of brain image segmentation is to partition a given brain image into different regions representing anatomical structures. In this paper, we present a new effective segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues and the diseased tissues are performed for examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We developed an algorithm for skull stripping before the segmentation process.
It serves as a guiding tool during stent placement and peripheral interventions. It allows the assessment of possible intra - or postoperative complications. With the aid of IVUS, disease progression and regression can be determined, cardiac transplant status can be evaluated and IVUS can be utelized in clinical research. The most common IVUS imaging is done on the coronary arteries. EUS-guided angiotherapy makes intravascular therapy possible and is done in conjunction with real time ultrasound investigation of thrombosis and hemostasis (Buthani,
It allows the neurologist to detect diseases at its early stages (Galotti, 2008). PET scans measure the blood flow to different regions of the brain, resulting in an electronic reconstruction of a picture of the brain, outlining which areas of the brain are most active at a particular time (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994). There are several advantages and disadvantages of a PET scan. The positive aspect of a PET scan enables early detection of certain neurological illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy. In addition, it is used as an alternative to a biopsy to determine how far a disease has spread (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994).
In the presence of a positive family history, VHL disease can be diagnosed clinically in a patient with at least one typical VHL tumor. Typical VHL tumors are retinal, spinal and cerebellar haemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma. In patients with a negative family history of VHL-associated tumors, a diagnosis of VHL disease can also be made when they exhibit two or more haemangioblastomas, or a single haemangioblastoma in association with another typical manifestation.6, 7 One fourthof the patients present with tumors of other organs and more than half of the patient have retinal hemangiomas, which are supplied by retinal feeder vessels, along with exudation and can present with vitreous hemorrhage. Retinal hemangiomas are the early manifestation of the disease. The hemangioma can be exophytic, endophytic or sessile.
Distoproximal caries was noted with 64 and so as to investigate further, routine radiographic examinations were carried out. The radiographs revealed impacted lateral incisors both right, left and Distoproximal decay with 64 (Fig 2a, b and c). 2a 2b 2c Fig 2a, b and c. showing blocked lateral incisors and Distoproximal decay with 64. A multidisciplinary approach is desirable to manage this type of case. The mesiodens was extracted under local anesthesia (Fig 3) along with the extraction of 64 followed by orthodontic space closure by a removable appliance (Fig 4).
The diagnosis is based on the physical exam, chest X-ray and oxygen levels and by ruling out other diseases and conditions. 4.3.1 Imaging. A chest X-ray can reveal which parts of lungs and how much of the lungs have fluid in them and whether heart is enlarged. In addition chest x-ray demonstrate diffuse and extensive bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates. Computerized tomography (CT) scan combines X-ray images taken from many different directions into cross-sectional views of internal organs.
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
Aside from producing detailed images of the body, an MRI can measure the tumor’s size. To help create a clearer picture, a special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan. It can be injected to the patient’s vein or given as a pill to swallow. MRIs create more detailed pictures than CT scans, which are three-dimensional pictures of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine (ACSO). Unlike most cancers, Brain cancer does not use a staging system to describe there tumor.
The MRI scan of the brain began with non – contrast scanning of the brain. Since Angiocentric Glioma pathological features are similar with other types of brain tumors such as astrocytomas and ependymomas, this made the diagnosis using MRI become more challenging. The tensor tractography imaging was used in the diagnostic including the axial and sagittal T1 weighted, axial T2 weighted, axial diffusion-weighted and also axial diffusion. From the non – contrast scanning in T1 weighted image, scalp appear bright in the image. Meanwhile skull of the brain was in dark signal.
Photodynamic therapy is a new technology to treat tumor based on nanoparticle generated ROS at the tumor site. (Takahashi, Nagao et al. 2002; Oberdanner, Plaetzer et al. 2005) Photosensitizers, such as nanoparticles, can produce ROS when they are activated with the appropriate wavelength of excitation light. Nanoparticles as photosensitizers must be in close proximity to the tumor cells that they are usually administered at the tumor site directly.