Essay On Mangrove

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Mangroves are marine tidal forest and they are most luxuriant around the mouth of large river, along cost-line are found mainly in tropical and subtropical countries where annual rainfall is fairly high. The plant usually adapted to anaerobic conditions of both saline and fresh water and saline environment. They produce aerial root (Pneumatophore) which projects above the mud and water in order to absorb oxygen. Mangrove plants are known to tolerate extreme environmental condition. A halophyte is a plant which naturally grows where it affected by salinity in the root area or by salt-spray in semi-deserts, mangrove swamps marshes and sea-shore. Mangrove and halophytic plants are used as ethnic medicine for the treatment of human disease for the centuries (Kirtikar and Basu, 1991). There are approximately 55 species of mangrove found worldwide, with the centre of diversity in Southeast Asia.
1.1. Mangrove Vegetation
1.1.1. Global Mangrove Distribution
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Global estimated of mangrove coverage vary considerably, for example, according to FAO there were 15.2 million hectare at 2005 (FAO, 2007). Approximately half of mangrove coverage occurs in five countries, i.e. Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, Nigaria and Mexico. Mangroves are distributed circum tropically in the earth. According to Spalding (1997) total global mangrove coverage is 18 million hectares and it is just about 0.45% of world forests and woodland. Of which 41.4% exist in South and Southeast Asia (Table 1.1,

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