Mangroves Introduction: Mangroves are tidal salt marsh community dominated by trees and large shrubs, particularly of the genus “Rhizophora” which grow in tropical and subtropical regions and have special adaptations enabling them to survive the harsh environment occurring in their habitats. Their size may vary considerably ranging from prostrate shrubs to 60-meters-high timber trees. The term mangrove is applied to either individual plant or to the ecosystem. Distribution and habitats: Because mangroves cannot withstand freezing temperatures, their forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator. About 75% of world’s mangroves occur in around 15 countries whereas Asia dominates the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa,
Mangrove Forest Composition The Fisheries Code defines mangroves as a community of intertidal plants including all species of trees shrubs, vines and herbs found on coasts swamps or on border of swamps. Mangroves are among the most important components of the coastal ecosystems. They are essential for the following reasons: they serve as habitats for species of marine fauna and flora, especially breeding and nesting grounds for fish, along with food and livelihoods for local communities; they can provide protection from the impacts of climate change, including sea-level rises and coastal erosion caused by storm surges and extreme weather events; they are also good source of important commodities such as food, fuel, timber, medicine and building
Information from all reports, technical presentations and workshop outputs were consolidated. Statistics on mangrove forest cover for the Southern Luzon in terms of species composition, distribution and extent of old and planted stands are reported. Current and emerging issues that pose threats to the existence of mangroves (e.g. coastal poverty, habitat conversion and sea level rise) were discussed. Varying management approaches across sites were summarized to identify common strategies that will help improve mangrove management in the region.
Over the last fifty years, deforestation levels have massively increased. In 1980 rainforests covered about 14% of the world, and now they cover only a mere 6%. The rainforests in Brazil are equally decreasing. So considering the resurgence of deforestation practices in Brazil and the world, the United Nations should regulate deforestation to protect the world 's largest rainforest and the
Abstract Through this study, we will highlight the mangrove plants in Jazan area by using advance mathematical models, because of its importance and great benefit,and summed up the importance of these plants in the sea shores to prevent corrosion and bring a large number of migratory birds. They are also resistant to the difficult circumstances that other plants cannot and contain nutrients that are used as animal feed privileged. Unfortunately, these plants are reduced to drift due to the ongoing reclamation processes that occur on the Red Sea coast. This research aims to use fuzzy topology in the diagnosis of the current situation of the mangrove plants scattered on the coast of Jazan area using fuzzy interior operator and fuzzy closure
Vegetation is also aesthetically appealing unlike the unsightly gabions and other hard-engineering measures. Mangroves also serve as a natural protection against floods that tend to destroy sea walls which are destroyed by waves of high energies. This can be seen in the example of
They are adapted to living in this environment where the water is scarce. Xerophytes can also live in places with high winds and very cold areas. Xerophytes are respire day and night and the photosynthesis cycle occurs both day and night as they experience CAM photosynthesis. As well as hydrophytes and mesophytes xerophytes are always in competition with nutrients and water because they live in a scarce environment and they need these things to live. Hydrophytes are plants that live in a water surrounded environment like rivers, ponds, lake or bay and
11 percent of the land area are used as cropland, 27 percent for pastureland, 32 percent as forested land, 9 percent as urban lands and the remaining 21 percent is unsuitable for crops, pasture, and/or forests because the soil is too infertile to support crop production or the climatic conditions in these areas are unfavourable for agricultural use. The land supplies greater portion of food consumed by humans. Therefore, with land being fixed in supply, its depletion poses more danger to the human race. Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals ' access to it. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”.