In Omaha Beach in New Zealand, marram grass is used for stabilisation. Planting of vegetation could also refer to planting mangroves which have strong roots to absorb wave energy and help to anchor the soil to the ground to reduce coastal erosion. Vegetation is more effective than hard engineering methods because it does not just reflect the wave energy but absorbs it, instead which is more effective. This is because areas which are not protected, are not destroyed or eroded away. Vegetation is also aesthetically appealing unlike the unsightly gabions and other hard-engineering measures.
Some of these benefits and functions of coral reefs are: the provision of fish and shellfish; bio-prospecting; raw materials for building; erosion control and storm protection; sand formation; and recreation and tourism (World Resources Institute [WRI], 2011). However, only some of these functions are classified as possessing direct economic value to the Caribbean (Burke et al, 2011). The main functions and benefits of coral reefs that are used for coral reef valuation are: tourism value, fish production and shoreline protection (Gustavson,
POPULATION DENSITY AND HABITAT PREFERENCE OF MECISTOPS CATAPHRACTUS IN THE OBUASI MUNICIPALITY INTRODUCTION Crocodiles are charismatic megafauna that act as a keystone species and often have served as indicators in ecosystem monitoring and restoration programmes. They maintain structure and function in aquatic ecosystems by such ecological roles as selective predation on fish species, recycling of nutrients and maintenance of wet refugia (Ross 1998; Mazzotti et al 2007). They are widely considered as flagship conservations pecies and have the potential to stimulate efforts in wetland conservation. Three species are native to West Africa: the West African Crocodile (Crocodylus suchus), the West African slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus),
Coastal communities that depend on seafood will need to find solutions to secure uncontaminated seafood without the risk of getting sick. Also, oyster farmers and aquaculture fisheries will need to initiate adaptation strategies to grow their meat in a safe and cost-effective way without ruining the distinctive taste of their product. Although this is true, food is not the only thing the ocean provides us. Recreational businesses such as diving, surfing, and wildlife viewing are also affected. Reef touring and wildlife viewing demand clear waters and abundant aquatic life in order to give the best tours (WHOI, 2018).
This has been used in areas which depend on beach tourism so that the beach is not made unattractive. However, some amount of beach erosion still occurs and maintenance is difficult since they are offshore (Coastal Management, 2015). Soft engineering, the next type of coastal management, refers to ‘the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve stability and safety of shorelines and rivers while enhancing habitats, aesthetics and saving money’ (Foster, 2010). Soft engineering options are less expensive, more sustainable, long term and have less impact on the environment (Debens, 2009). Beach nourishment is a technique used to reclaim or restore a lost beach or to create a new sandy shoreline.
These data can ultimately be used to predict the impact of environmental changes on phytoplankton and thus on the marine ecosystem as a whole since alteration in the population dynamic of phytoplankton may result in the collapse of the whole ecosystem. Also, the use of conversion of bio-volume to biomass is another method of quantifying phytoplankton that requires future attention. Furthermore, the current study has focused on identification of phytoplankton based on morphological features but genetic analysis using recent molecular tools may reveal higher diversity and even new species. Thus, these factors can be taken into consideration in future studies. If we have to thoroughly understand phytoplankton dynamics in the coastal waters around Mauritius Island, studies on the above limitations are
They used land-use/land-cover, settlement and elevation of Andoni as criteria for the suitability. The result showed that the places in Andoni that are highly suitable for fish farming are mostly clustered in the highest vegetation cover areas stretching from the Southern parts to about 5 kilometers towards the Atlantic Ocean. The Nypa palm areas have adequate condition such as nearness to water supply and settlements that will provide business opportunities to the ponds. Other areas that were highly suitable were located close to the rivers. Because of the steady and consistent supply of water directly from its source, areas located closer to the water source (river) are highly suitable for fish farming.
You can see a local craft market and explore mangrove swamps. Varela explore this beautiful area which is also a national park. There is lovely coastline. You’ll see muddy mangrove rivers, populations of sea turtles and dusty dunes with sea grasses. In the savannah grasses and dense forests live Nile crocodiles and hippos.
Tropical Rain Forest Generally, the tropical rain forests are mostly characterized by a high tree species diversity, even though large differences are present in between regions (ter Steege, 2000). The structure and species diversity of the tropical rainforest makes it the most complex ecosystem. The Tropical rainforests is made up of the evergreen broadleaved trees which flourish in the humidity of the low altitudes between 100 north and 100 south of the equator and high temperature (Park 1992). Earlier statistics indicates that the despite its coverage of merely 6% of Earth's land surface, tropical rainforests harbour approximately half of all the world's animal and plant species (National Research Council 1992). In terms of locations, most tropical rainforest are found in the Southeast Asia, Central and Western Africa and Central and South America.
1999) and typically distributed from highest spring tide to mean sea level, show a sequential pattern of change in trees species. Several factors like salinity, soil types, nutrient and its chemistry, physiological tolerances, predations and competition are responsible for zonation of mangrove flora and fauna (Robertson and Alongi 1992). Mangroves possesses some special morphological and ecological characteristics that provide a unique ecological and functional structure. Some morphological and eco-physiological characteristics and adaptations include pneumatophores, viviparous seeds, propagules dispersion through tidal actions, absence of growth rings, very functional nutrient retention capacity and ability to cope-up with salinity variations (Alongi 2002). Mangroves continuously interact with tidal flows and as a biogeomorphological agent it entrap sediment, create humus upon sedimentation, plays an important role in