Book 21 focused heavily on setting up for the audience and everyone around him that the entire reason he was there was to avenge his best friend and make sure that everyone responsible paid for his death. One particular quote caught my attention as being a good explanation, stating “No, you’ll all die, die ugly deaths, until you have paid for the Greeks’ loss, for Patroclus dead, killed by the ships while I was away” (Iliad, Book 21, 141-43). He also exposes his motive for why he feels he must avenge Patroclus- he feels responsible for not being there when Patroclus died, possibly able to prevent him from meeting such a fate. Now he is taking out his anger over Patroclus’ death on all Trojans and refuses to show any of them mercy. Going beyond just seeking revenge, he’s also continuing to partake in the aforementioned brutal violence.
Prayers to the gods could be used to get a crew or companion home safely. For example, Odysseus had a voyage that lasted for a long time, and many thought he had passed. Homer’s purpose of writing the Odyssey is to connect mythology to the lives of the people living in the time period of this epic poem and the reader’s lives using deus ex machina.
Agamemnon’s taking of Briseis enrages Achilles and spurs him to remove himself from the war, leading to a massive death toll in the Achaean forces. In stealing Briseis from Achilles, he is not only robbing of him of a material prize, but also a symbol of honor, his geras, in Greek culture. In retaliation, Achilles removes himself from the war and prays to his mother, Thetis, that she will ask Zeus to damage the Achaean forces. Achilles’ only goal is that “even mighty Atrides can see how mad he was to disgrace Achilles” (1.488-490). Despite having no true grievance against the Achaean army as a whole, Achilles’ rage blinds him from the potential harm that may befall his troops.
A character who makes a judgement or error that inevitably leads to his or her own destruction, defines a tragic hero, according to Aristotle. In William Shakespeare’s writings, one character generally identifies as a tragic hero. Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, comes from the true events that took place in Rome during the time that Caesar rose and gained power as dictator. After Pompey’s death in Egypt, caused by each of their power-hungry desires, Caesar declared himself dictator of Rome. Although, with Pompey’s death, many remained loyal to him as opposed to Caesar, that then led to the plot of Caesar’s assassination.
Homer’s “The Iliad” uses Achilles, our epic hero, as a demonstration of the power rage has over men, and how that in turn affects fate. Achilles, though sometimes considered godlike in his sheer power, often succumbs to his overwhelming rage--eventually at the expense of his best friend’s life, and nearly his own honor. Although Achilles ultimately chooses to avenge Patroclus’ death and achieve his own kleos, his initial rage-fueled decision to withdraw his participation in the war leads to the death of many Achaean soldiers at the hands of the Trojan forces, thus demonstrating the power prideful rage has in determining fate. Achilles’ initial refusal to battle alongside Agammemnon, motivated by his fury at being publicly shamed, leads to
Vergil opens his narrative by immediately delving into the motivations behind Juno’s torment of the Trojans. Juno is depicted to be suffering due to fear that she will lose something dear to her in the future, and thus takes action against the Trojans in an effort to prevent the loss. Vergil narrates that, "There was an ancient city, Carthage.... They say Juno loved this one land above all others.... Yet she’d heard of offspring, derived from Trojan blood, / that would one day
Divine intervention, or the role of the gods, plays a predominant role in the development of the eventual fate of the main characters; Odysseus, his son, Telemachus and his wife, Penelope. Homer is able to effectively incorporate the employment of divine forces as facilitators in destiny, as well as efficiently engage the readers through his vivid description of the various predicaments faced by Odysseus. Divine intervention is a phenomenon widely used in mythological epics. The gods play protagonistic and antagonistic roles; they essentially toy with the character until his fate is evident. Homer utilizes this right from the very beginning; we see Athena coming to the aid of Odysseus when Zeus refuses to have sympathy for him due to the fact that most heroes blame the Gods for their doom;
Brutus made justified actions in result of his internal conflicts. He believes that Caesar is not fit to be a king, and will become dictatorial. This problem plagued Brutus for several sleepless nights. He finally came to his conclusion that, for the better of Rome, he must stop Caesar before he gets too powerful (II, i, 34-36). As he joins the Conspiracy to kill Caesar, he believes the rest of the Conspirators have the same view as him.
The tragedy is filled with dramatic ironies due to Oedipus’ ambition in finding King Laius’s murderer. As Oedipus was addressing the people of Thebes about the consequences that will follow the murderer, “Be driven from every house, being, as he is, corruption itself to us”(Sophocles 227-228). The dramatic irony is that Oedipus is the murderer himself but he does not know it yet, so the proclamation that he said should be applied to him. Alternatively, Tiresias replied to Oedipus after he insulted him for being “sightless” and “ senseless” and said, “There is no one here who will not curse you soon, as you curse me.”
(Homer, The Odyssey, Book VIII, Page 269) When the Trojan’s accepted it, the Greek army sailed away to make the Trojans think they had left, and that night the hidden soldiers got out of the horse and opened the gates to let their comrades in to make a surprise attack on the city and to end the war. The main obstacle that started all of Odysseus’s troubles was his brilliant idea to make the Trojan horse and to have the hidden solders inside to make his plan of attack work. But, while they were attacking the