The oil spill caused monumental environmental damage to the Alaskan coastline where some species are still recovering from today. The impact of the spill on flora and fauna, human life and the economy was staggering which was caused by human error, lack of adequate resources and insufficient support from external systems. The oil spill tested the preparedness and response to a disaster of this magnitude, which revealed many shortcomings. Due to this historical event, numerous important lessons and recommendations emerged to prevent or mitigate the impacts of future
Fracking involves drilling a hole into the ground and injecting a combination of fluids and chemicals into the shale. The fracking fluid contains upwards of 600 different chemicals (David). The pressure of the fluid is what causes the shale to fracture, then releases natural gas. That fracking fluid is what is really dangerous, as this is what poses the biggest threat, since many of those chemicals are extremely dangerous and some are completely unknown by the public. After the fracking process is complete, the fracking water, known as flowback, which includes water, chemicals and additives, is either collected and transferred to holding-tanks or it is injected back into the ground for storage
Moreover, if the hole is not properly cased to stop leaks the fracking water and fluids can seep into the water aquifers. Wells that are built in rural areas are dangerous as many people in these areas are unaware of the dangers of fracking. Drinking contaminated water can cause different types of cancers and also infertility and birth defects due to of the presence hazardous chemicals. Impoundments that have not been built or properly closed off have led to the death of many animals and also health issues in
Including the states Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. This natural disaster cost more than 100$ billion in damage including gas prices suddenly got jacked up. Katrina hammered out almost about 95 percent of oil production in the Gulf. That was a key supply point for the U.S. about a quarter of domestic oil comes from the region. With most of our oil productions shut down we couldn’t get the money we needed to keep gas prices reasonable.
It is conceivable to reason that the natural gas had leaked out amid the process of fracking, and mixed into the groundwater. This pollutes the groundwater and puts the health of everyone that uses the groundwater into risk, as consuming too much
Without it we would be dead from the dehydration. Fracking in this case can contaminate it to where we cannot drink it and if we do it can lead to death or a trip to the hospital: Drinking water sources have been contaminated with explosive methane, as well as other dangerous substances, such as benzene and arsenic, that can cause cancer and other serious illnesses. Toxic chemicals, as well as erosion and runoff from drilling operations, have fouled
This industry not only provides the populous with inexpensive power but also creates a steady employment option. Besides an increase in the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, the mass accumulation of coal ash and its leaks and spills into local rivers negatively affect the environment (“Energy-Related”). According to Earthjustice, “North Carolina generates over 5.5 million tons of ash per year” ("Coal Ash Contaminates”). In Eden, N.C. in 2014, the largest coal ash spill occurred, releasing 39,000 tons into the Dan River, which supplies drinking water to surrounding communities, a habitat for aquatic organisms, and recreational activities (Gallucci). Coal ash, also known as coal combustion residuals or CCRs, contains hazardous byproducts from power production, including arsenic, lead, mercury, and chromium, that can poison drinking water sources for humans and devastate wildlife habitats (“Coal Ash Basics”).
While the quality of water is important for many individuals, wasting water in the matter they do can seem like a major crime. The Congressional Digest also says that fracking is a huge waste of water, and is one of the biggest wastes of water around. Millions of gallons of water are dumped into the soil to pop up these natural gases, and its no longer useful once it comes back. In fact the water that goes down into these holes, does come back up, however once it comes back up with the gas and oil, it is no longer the water we thought it was. The “flow back” or water that returns to the surface, does not always come back up,“…less than 30 percent to more than 70 percent of the original fracture fluid volume” is brought back up, and is rendered unusable (Congressional Digest).
It was found out that the disposal wells pumped with used fracking chemical water are creating these man-made earthquakes. “If you pump water in a fault, the fault can slip, causing an earthquake.” https://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/tag/earthquake/ These earthquakes, no matter how big or small are bothersome to a person 's
It also is toxic to many aquatic species during various parts of their life cycles. Oil can literally smother some species because it hinders their ability to absorb from the water. Plants and kelp are particularly affected by oil spills, and as the base of most ocean life it causes ripples up the food change, much like sea star wasting caused ripples down the food chain. Some species are more affected than others such as kelp, sea otters and marine birds all of which play critical roles in the marine ecosystem. Oil spills are yet another threat for these already threatened ecosystems.
The US is going to use some source of energy and that will always have some negative effects on the environment. The alternative sources for the energy we need have negative effects on the environment as well. “In 2011 U.S. coal-fired power plants emitted nearly two billion metric tons of greenhouse gases -- roughly eight times the amount produced by mining, refining and burning tar sands”(Biello). Canada is going to develop a pipeline system to export oil whether it’s to the US or other countries, like China, that are trying to get access to this resource. With the proposed Keystone XL pipeline there are many environmental and safety standards that would be enforced to ensure that concerns such as oil leaks are detected, fixed and cleaned up properly and quickly.
Citizens who live in the path of the pipeline are experiencing eminent domain lawsuits being brought against them where TransCanada is forcefully confiscating land from homeowner and farmers. The environmental argument is coming from a clash over the fact they are basically stripping the canadian boreal forest, the path of the pipeline extends across major aquifers, and pipelines tend to leak and destroy surrounding environments. In addition ccording to The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions State, “epartment’s draft SEIS found that oil from the Canadian oil sands is 17 percent more carbon-intensive than the average oil consumed in the United States... It is estimated that the U.S. greenhouse gas footprint would increase by 3 million to 21 million metric tons per year, or around 0.04 percent to 0.3 percent of the 2010 levels, if Keystone is built. Fortunately on November 6, 2015, President Barack Obama’s administration rejected the Keystone Pipeline XL after 7 years of dispute.
Mining can damage the environment and structures above ground. “The observable biological effects include: (1) depletion of numbers of sensitive, and diversity of all, free swimming and benthic (bottom dwelling) aquatic organisms;(2) loss of spawning gravel for fish; and (3) direct fish mortalities, particularly of natural game (salmon and trout) fish.” (Hester, Harrison, 1994). So much is destroyed by mining. Countless properties and families lose their homes and livelihoods to weakened soil and polluted environment. Miners and their families can develop a variety of health issues from coal dust and chemicals.