This new paradigm is focused and rooted in women’s perspectives that write about energy, capacity and potential. She redefines power as a deliberative, collective and cooperative action, moreover finds that a feminist reformulation of security studies would fundamentally alter the field. Mainly, because women don’t have access to coercion and have developed other solutions for issues therefore introducing a new perspective to international relations. For Tickner, this reformulation would lead to an analysis of security in terms of north-south instead of east-west and about human security instead of national security, and would even tie in the environment as a site of mutual cooperation rather than
This essay claims that even though advocates of ‘loose’ women, David Hume in this case, were active throughout the Enlightenment, the Enlightenment failed to be era of feminism Firstly, let me address the question of the location of the Enlightenment and the oppressed women in this work. At the beginning, this essay was going to focus on British Enlightenment and the emergence of British feminism during the Enlightenment. However, after the thorough research I had to agree with Barbara Taylor who claims that, Britain and, to a lesser extent, France took the leading this nascent feminist advocacy; but it is misleading to study these countries in isolation from their neighbors. The world of Enlightened intellectuals, both male and female, was a cosmopolitan one, in which national boundaries were readily crossed (Taylor, 263, 1999). Condorcet, a native of France and women’s right activist, was familiar with the
Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights Journal Summary The journal which is composed by Oonagh Reitman is really talking with respect to the conflict between all-inclusiveness of human rights and woman 's rights; and the conflict between comprehensiveness of human rights and social relativism. Women 's activist and social relativist has condemned the idea of human rights both in its practices and its fundamental idea, women 's activist concentrate on practice and social relativist on both practice and essential idea. The journal is not just clarifying on how both women 's activist and relativist censured the comprehensiveness of human rights, additionally the likelihood of concealed politic which is brought
My classes taught me that realism should always be the first concern and that material factors are more critical, the beliefs and goals asserted by feminism seemed to be so impractical and idealized in stark contrast. I began to doubt myself and feminism. But these frustration turned out to be my motivation to combine international relations and feminism. By taking gender studies programs and independent learning, I realized that feminism and gender studies have made significant contributions to the world and gender itself is the core component of international relations. Thus, I began to question the powerful political and
The article, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights – Friends or Foes?” by Oonagh Reitman seeks to address how cultural relativist and feminist sees the existence of the international human rights, specifically women’s human rights. The research problem being addressed is the similarities between these two critiques of international human rights and how these two critiques have come to defy one another when it comes to the term of women’s international human rights. The author has made it clear that this is a debatable issue. The cultural relativist argued on the universality of human rights, which contradicts with the statement that human rights are those held simply by virtue of being human and whose substance, form and interpretation are not subject to variations in culture (Donnelly 1989: 109-110). Cultural relativist uphold that culture is the principle source of any rights or rules, they argued that the existence of women’s human rights cannot be universally applied.
Judith Butler is an American philosopher, gender theorist, and feminist who has significantly impacted political, feminist, and queer theory, as well as an array of other disciplines with her research and writings on gender. It is specifically her concept of gender performativity that has largely shaped modern feminism and gender theory and contributed largely to our current understanding of gender (Duignan). This theory originates from her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, published in 1990. Although undoubtedly influential in gender theory, I believe that Butler’s theory of gender performativity is false and I reject it as an accurate explanation of gender. In this paper, I will dispute Butler’s theory of gender
What came with the views of female empowerment came the views of those who saw females as merely caregivers to the male population. One person in particular who is a strong believer in this idealistic was Jean Jacques Rousseau. His “radical stance on nature and the establishment of the civil state was viewed as dangerous by many philosophes” (Rogers,84). The Enlightenment allowed scholars and writers to put forth their ideas and pave the way for different outlooks on societies standards especially when it came to women’s gender roles. The ideas of gender roles varied in terms of how women should be represented in society and how they should contribute and participate in civil duties; in which some scholars see women as non-essential assets in the society where some see women having the potential to help society gain momentum in the
The reading “Gendering Organizational Theory” written by Joan Acker analyzes the importance of implementing gendered organizations into the organization of public administration that integrate the role of women with neutrality. The author advocates for the usage of gender structures that advocates for gender-neutral character, job evaluation and the concept of abstract worker into the structure of complex organizations. Acker argued, “Jobs and hierarchies are represented as gender neutral, and every time such a job evaluation system is used, the notion of gender-neutral structure and the behavior based on that notion are re-created within the organization” (p. 425). The reading begins its discussion by mentioning the differences in treatment, society roles, and limitations and women face in their daily lives. Since the establishment of the roles of society, women have been entitled to feminine roles that focus on family and nurturing.
The assumption is that gender is socially constructed category that comes of out whole systems and layers of meaning that is structured into the way in which the world works and can be unstructured or deconstructed. In that sense, feminism is a part of a constructivist agenda. However, there are tensions between feminist and constructivist works. One of the interesting areas of this is that some constructivists have started to take gender seriously as a kind of cause or variable, and started to talk about the way that gender can influence the actors and people involved in international politics. For example, during the evacuation of people in the wars that lead to the splitting of Yugoslavia in the mid 1990s, It is argued that because of the way that some humanitarian organizations and other organizations took for granted certain assumptions about gender, they failed to notice that it was the men who were the most vulnerable category of the population that were most under threat from the invading forces, and the priority was given to the old, the sick, the women and the children by
She strongly believes they should and writes her essay with a passion that shows just that. In order for readers to see her point of view she must first establish credibility and gain the reader’s trust. She uses logic and her own authority as Dean of Princeton’s Woodrow School, along with the viewport of the school’s founder to do just that. It’s apparent that Paxson assumes the reader is friendly since she doesn’t give much background on the issues facing the decline of humanities now, but does talk about how throughout history the need for humanities has