Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19). According to her, gender identity is a signifier for human beings; it can be used in the process of forming individuals’ identity. Thus, it becomes a demand to study gender identity. Gender identity is a personal inner sense of self as a male or female. Psychological theory of gender identity reveals a new postmodern problematic issue related to gender identity: gender identity as a personal feeling, can be changed, transformed and masqueraded.
This is because researchers have different point of views, regarding how much of gender is due to biological and evolutionary factors (nature), or, they claim, that it might be the result of the person’s culture and their socialisation (nurture). Feminists note the ways in which a woman is different from a man; they stress the biological and cultural differences between genders. They also often reverse the dominant patriarchal values of a man by showing preferences to women’s qualities and their competencies over a man’s. Furthermore, a person’s gender identity is their own personal account of their gender. It is the degree to which a person identifies as a male, female, or any other
Connell asserted towards a new sociology of masculinity; the theoretical concern is that in the gender order as a whole, masculinity was one piece of the jigsaw. She tried to make social science relevant to social justice. The traditional definition of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ includes words like breadwinner, strong, rational, tough, aggressive, non feminine, don't cry, get girls, break the rules and so on. Developing the concept of masculinities has obvious implications of re-fixing of the role of gender balance in a society. By creating a mindset that results in reduction of violence, thereby creating gender equality.
Although societies differ in the specific task they assign to the two sexes (male and female), all societies allocate adult roles on the basis of sex and anticipate this allocation in the socialization of their children. Not only are boys and girls expected to acquire sex-specific self-concepts and personality attributes, to be masculine or feminine as defined by that particular culture (Barry, Bacon and Child, 1957. P.354). The process by which by which a society thus transmutes male and female into masculine and feminine is known as the process of sex
Comparing Homosexual and Heterosexual Relationships In relation to the comparison of heterosexual and homosexual relationship, Clarke et al. (2005) explored in their article of what occurs in relationships when there are unavailable ‘off-the-shelf’ roles. Gender difference is one issue that appears constantly in psychological analyses of heterosexual relationships. A world in which gender differences are widely believed in is where heterosexual couples build their relationships in, which in turn are reflected in institutions and popular culture. Couples are judged, positioned and regulated both by others and by themselves, against and through these ideas about gender difference.
Formerly to describe these people used the term 'hermaphrodites'. However, hermaphroditism is only one of the many ways of being intersexual and, in fact, one of the least frequent. The case of David Reimer and what I have learned about intersex impacts the way that I think about sex and gender is that we cannot judge other people for their sex or gender because you never know their story or past. Sex cannot be completely changed, while social roles do. Gender is a social construct, while sex is given by nature.
Language has been historically man-made with the male forms reflecting the male’s position in the society and the female forms perceived as deviant. Various lexical markings have also prevented women from expressing and raising consciousness about their own experience as legitimately human by preventing women from speaking with their own voice. One of the most common examples of gender bias in language is the use of pronouns, such as ‘he’ or ‘him’ to something related to both men and women. Another great example is that of master vs. mistress. There are unusual connotations surrounding the two terms and detriment to the female.
They wish to analyse the workings of patriarchy in all its manifestations, desire to think in terms of pluralities and diversities rather than unities and universals and articulate ways of thinking about gender without simply reversing the old hierarchies or confirming them. In order to achieve these goals, postmodern feminist writers have exerted their energies to deconstruct the past, reconstruct a more
1. Introduction This paper examines the role of grounded theory in social sciences in relations to case studies for a qualitative research study specifically, on ways how grounded theory is created and used in case studies to build a theory. Using Strauss and Corbin’s 1998 basics of qualitative research called Basics of Qualitative Research - techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory and Yin’s 2014 fifth edition also called case study research as the main references for this essay. Both of these books are crucial and uniquely guide novice researchers in their process to conduct research in social sciences. Research Design and Methods The use of these books is not necessarily to summarize them but rather to stress the points
Reflection 1: Often gender and sex are used interchangeably. However the two are not the same. Gender is a set of socially constructed characteristics and behaviors assigned to the biological categories of male/female. Conversely, sex is defined as either of the two main categories into which humans and many other living things are divided based on their reproductive functions. With that it can be assumed that they are different but still they are used the same way.