Introduction and Problem overview According to Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012, a report by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, The International Union for Conservation of Nature, and the United Nations Environment Program, Caribbean coral reefs have been declining at an alarming rate. Specimen populations found in Caribbean coral reefs have been stable for at least 125 thousand years, until the 1980s (Jackson 2001). In this essay, I will focus on the responses and measures taken to combat coral reef degradation. A large focus will be on the loss of grazer species, primarily the parrotfish, as well as global warming. Since the 1970s, coral reef populations have declined by more than 50% (IUCN 2014).
Fish stocks all around the world have been declining for the past 50 years. Tuna has been hit by that the hardest with almost 80% of their stocks being overfished. Human impact on the ocean's ecosystems and fish stocks are devastating, some studies suggest that the ocean will be fish free by 2048. An ecosystem is an biological environment that interacts with its organism. Ecosystems are crucial for fish and plants to survive.
animals and plants, aquatic and terrestrial) all around the world are involved (Benton, 2011). There have five major extinction events in the last 600 million years ago, the Late Ordovician, Late Devonian, Late Permian, Late Triassic and end-Cretaceous (K–T), respectively in that order (Twitchett, 2006). The Permian-Triassic mass extinction happened in between the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras, about 251 million years ago (Jablonski, 1995). This mass extinction was the most devastating by a big margin, this claimed 95% of all aquatic species, which dramatically changed life in the ocean. Land plants and animal were also affected, about 70% of all life on the earth.
100 Million is the number of sharks killed annually. In fact, many shark populations have decreased by 60-90% over the last few decades. Today, Sharks are barely holding on. Let’s give them a long overdue hand. If not, they will be gone, the decrease will continue and accelerate and then, suddenly stop when it is too late.
For several years now, Illegal fishing has been a major problem in the growth of marine sector in Indonesia. Furthermore, the majority of the malpractices are done by neighboring countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, RRC, Filipina, etc. In addition, the numbers of illegal fishing is quite massive. According to FAO (2008), approximately there are 1 million ton of fish fished illegally by 3000 ships annually. Due to IUU, Indonesia suffers Rp 30 trillion annually based on FAO and Indonesia suspected higher number then that which is Rp 300
‘Plastic in our oceans is the most dangerous form of pollution.’ To what Extent do you Agree More than 4.8 million metric tons of plastic is being dumped into our oceans every year, and this number is just a conservative estimate. Researchers believe the real amount could be as high as 12.7 million metric tons! This number was calculated by the UC Santa Barbara National Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and they hope to get a better understanding of where all the oceans’ trash comes from. Green Peace quoted that the ‘oceans are slowly turning into a plastic soup’. It is thought that 100,000 marine creatures die a year from plastic entanglement, most of these being birds who get their beaks or feet caught in plastic, or swallowing bits of plastic that look like sea creatures i.e.
Unfortunately, this process destroyed the vitamin C and was unsuccessful. During the 18th century, disease killed more British sailors than enemy action. It was mainly by scurvy that George Anson, in his celebrated voyage of 1740–1744, lost nearly two-thirds of his crew (1300 out of 2000) within the first 10 months of the voyage. The Royal Navy enlisted 184,899 sailors during the Seven Years' War; 133,708 of these were "missing" or died from disease, and scurvy was the leading
There are many reasons for this problem which include environmental degradation, evolving fishing technologies and its associated increased capacity, overfishing and etc.In the coastal parts of Southeast Asia the fishing stocks have already exhausted to an alarming levelranging from 5 % to 30% of unexploited levels. The significant increase in the shipping vessels has also greatly impacted the local catch. However during the years 1993 to 2007 a number of fishing boats/ trawlers were added by the fishermen of both Sindh & Baluchistan, but were not able to yield the expected return even though the catch included the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), extends to approximately 200 miles deep from the coast. Another major reason for the drop in our fishing catch is the increase of Int’l fishing vessels which the govt. of Pakistan fails to address todate.
1. Background HSBC Holdings Public Limited Company (HSBC) has found in 1865. It is a 150 years British multinational banking and financial services company. Nowadays, HSBC has declined in scale and network. It has gradually laid off 40,000 employees since 2010.
At present, fish represents the most widely studied group of aquatic metazoans (Bucklin A., Steinke D. & Blanco-Bercial L., 2011). According to FishBase.org (2012), there are about 1344 marine fish species available in Malaysia saltwater. However, due to its high demands worldwide, this species is now facing threats as it declines in stock and some are even considered endangered or extinct (Schroder T. Ed., 2013). World Wildlife Fund (WWF)-Malaysia (2012) estimates that there might be no more fish to catch in 35 years onward in Malaysia marine waters.