Coral Reef Fish Community

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Marine conservation has become increasingly important with the size of the human population exceeds seven billion people, and the negative effects on the human world 's oceans rise (Roberts and Hawkins 1999). There is growing recognition that marine species could be vulnerable to extinction, and there are already many organisms have already been confirmed extinction (Vincent & Hall 1996, Roberts & Hawkins 1999, Reynolds et al. 2002). A recent compilation of 133 known local, regional or global extinctions of marine populations found that exploitation is the most common cause (55%), followed closely by habitat loss 37%, (Dulvy et al. 2003). Other threats include invasive species, pollution, coastal development, climate change and disease (Lessios…show more content…
1994, Jennings & Lock 1996, Jennings & Kaiser 1998, Jennings et al. 1998). The process of maintaining the coral reef fishes communities is necessary, in order to maintaining a food source, and ecological processes for many coral reef communities (Russ 1991, McManus 1996, Bell wood et al. 2004 The sensitivity of some reef fish to over-fishing increased fishin pressure on reef fish populations, and worries that many reef fisheries are now over-fished supports the need for more effective management of coral reef fisheries (Russ & Alcala 1989, Russ 1991, Munro 1996, Sadovy 1997b, Jennings et al. 1999b, Sale 2002, Sadovy et al. 2003b). Therefore there is necessary to increase our knowledge about reef fish ecology, population dynamics and responses to fishing to achieving a better management (Sale et al. 1994, Jennings & Lock 1996, Vincent & Sadovy…show more content…
1996, Sale 1998). Previous studies have demonstrated that reef fish biology is variable at a range of scales, partly reflecting the spatially patchy and dynamic environments of coral reef ecosystems (Aldenhoven 1986a, 1986b, Shapiro 1991, Pitcher 1992, Connell 1996, Hart & Russ 1996, Munday et al. 1997, Connell & Kingsford 1998, Gust et al. 2001, Meekan et al. 2001, Williams et al. 2003, Gust 2004). Recent studies incorporating multiple spatial scales (e.g. Newman et al. 1997, Adams et al. 2000, Gust et al. 2001, Adams 2002, Gust et al. 2002, Kritzer 2002, Williams 2003, Williams et al. 2003, Mapstone et al. 2004) indicate that the relative importance of different biological characteristics varies at different spatial scales, and that the pattern of spatial variability of a particular characteristic appears to differ among species. Spatial variation in demographic and life history characteristics may give local populations varying resilience to disturbances including fishing, and consequently local populations may

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