Marine Conservation: The Negative Effects Of Marine Conservation

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Marine conservation has become increasingly important with the size of the human population exceeds seven billion people, and the negative effects on the human world 's oceans rise (Roberts and Hawkins 1999). There is growing recognition that marine species could be vulnerable to extinction, and there are already many organisms have already been confirmed extinction (Vincent & Hall 1996, Roberts & Hawkins 1999, Reynolds et al. 2002). A recent compilation of 133 known local, regional or global extinctions of marine populations found that exploitation is the most common cause (55%), followed closely by habitat loss 37%, (Dulvy et al. 2003). Other threats include invasive species, pollution, coastal development, climate change and disease (Lessios 1988, Miller 1989, Kime 1995, Jones & Reynolds 1997, Spalding & Jarvis 2002, Vidthayanon & Premcharoen 2002, Clavero & Garcia-Berthon 2005). Examples of sharp declines in the numbers of marine fish include: Atlantic cod, cod; Bucket morhua, in the North Atlantic (Myers et al. 1997a); humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus in parts of southeast Asia (Donaldson & Sadovy 2001, Sadovy et al. 2003a); and many reef fish species in the Caribbean (e.g. Koslow et al. 1988, Sadovy 1994a, Sala et al. 2001). Moreover, Myers and Worm (2005), confirmed a general decline in large predatory fish communities worldwide by at least 90% over the last 50 years - 100 years.

Many of international organization are attempting to identify the species and

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