During the 1700’s-1800’s while Philadelphia served as the nation’s temporary capital, the U.S. Congress met problems and threats to the nation that tested the endurance of the Constitution and the republic it framed. Domestic issues of finance, taxation, sectionalism, Indian affairs, and slavery divided the delegates into bitter political camps and international relations fomented disagreements as well. Congress during this decade forged a government that remained intact, despite expectations to the contrary from the prevailing monarchies overseas. To handle the heavy load of business, Congress created the first standing committees—commerce, banking, taxes, and the national debt. Certain southern delegates threatened that their states would
John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who supported loose construction of the Constitution and enforcing economic provisions in the Constitution. The Supreme Court decisions did not extend federal power too much because the states needed to stay the same. Marshall’s leadership skills helped strengthen the federal government and he believed in all things good for the government. It is not appropriate that someone who was not elected should have such tremendous power to shape the government and law because the president and people should have the ability to elect a person to have a government position. John Marshall was a powerful government official who made the government strong, but he should not have had so much power
(Cronkhite, 2013). His contributions to the field of law enforcement was visionary and sheer genius, which also included modern day American a place where individual liberty and civil rights are guarded with keen personal safety. (Vizzard, 2008) Under his leadership the Bureau became to one of the world’s premier law enforcement agencies, employing the day’s most
Federalism Compare state sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation and under the Constitution. States were sovereign under the Articles of the Confederation although they shared no power under the constitution. It is the states that were supreme under the Articles of Confederation that led to the creation of a government that had a weaker national government. The executive arm of the government was not independent, and there were no federal courts since the state courts enacted all the laws (Brest, p.58). Also, neither did the Congress have the taxing power nor did it have the power to control interstate or foreign commerce.
Congress would also be able to enforce federal laws on states; however, each state would also have their own laws and enforce them. If I am understanding this properly, Patterson proposed the presidency be more than one person and that the presidency would then appoint an Executive Magistrate or judiciary group that would consist of a group of
Across the United States, there are three different levels of law enforcement agencies that uphold the justice system. These agencies are known as a municipal agency, a state agency, and a federal agency. In Arizona, these three different levels of law enforcement are clearly seen within the Glendale Police Department, Arizona Department of Public Safety, and United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Even though each of the three law enforcement agencies have many similarities and differences amongst their roles, they all have the shared vision of working together to protect and defend the people in their jurisdiction. The Role of Each Agency
John Marshall, the fourth chief of justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, became perhaps the nation’s “most illustrious judicial figure” according to Charles Evans Hughes (Simon, 2012). He was strongly committed to the need to create a strong and effective government. Marshall quickly became a prominent political figure of the Federalist Party in the 1790’s, and in early 1801, he was appointed to the Supreme Court by President John Adams. On assuming his duties, Chief Justice John Marshall took immediate action to strengthen the power of the Court (Fox, 2006). He raised the United States Supreme Court from an anomalous position to majesty and power.
Three-Strikes Law It is my intention to establish a relationship between the three strikes law and retention rates of prisoners incarcerated for low level offenses. Before I begin to discuss the three-strikes law, it is imperative that I give some background information on sentencing guidelines. During the 1970 's the incarceration sentences imposed were indeterminate, meaning the judge had the discretion to sentence an offender on a case by case basis and sentencing a person to state prison or county jail was supposed to be to rehabilitate that person so he/she could re-enter society. Often time’s prisoners were sentenced to different amounts of time for similar offenses.
Since the establishment of the United States Supreme Court in 1789 the role and function of the court has varied depending on the need of the country. There are several different schools of thought when it comes to the purpose and the function that the Supreme Court should take, ranging from strictly ruling on constitutional matters up to weighing in on national policy cases. To evaluate what role the court actually takes, one must examine both the institutional function as well as the political function. Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist No. 78 has been considered one of the most influential pieces of work in the field, as it lays the ground work of what he believed was the role of the court.
Most criminals were given only broad maximum terms of (state of being locked in a prison). If federal judges were selected/hired to deliver any sentence, the sentence would go from probation to the law-related highest possible value. No meaningful (taking a court case to a higher court for review) of the sentence was available to the offender. With the judges meeting up to make their final legal decision, each judge 's individual ideas/plans of justice and views of the purposes of sentencing, and sentences for almost the same offenses varied very much depending on the identity of the sentencing judge. Also, the system was not limited to sentencing judges.
In both the McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden cases, John Marshall asserted the power of judicial review, and legitimatized the Supreme Court within the national government. The Marshall Court, over the span of thirty years, managed to influence the life of every American by aiding in the development of the judicial branch and establishing a boundary between the state and national government. John Marshall’s Supreme Court cases shaped how the government is organized today. He strongly believed in Federalism, and that the national government should be sovereign, rather than the states. The Supreme Court under John
After discussing it at length, the Congress decided that three main departments were needed, although more would ultimately be added: The Department of Foreign Affairs (later renamed The State Department), The War Department, and the Treasury Department.7 For secretary of war, Washington appointed Henry Knox, a fellow general from the Revolutionary War. As Secretary of State, he ultimately chose Thomas Jefferson, although his first choice was John Jay, who would become Chief Justice. Finally, as secretary of the treasury, he chose Alexander Hamilton.8 Washington 's choice of Hamilton was particularly crucial, as he was entrusting him with the major task of resolving the new republic 's
Over the year’s federalism has taken on many forms within our federal system. The distribution of powers within these many forms of federal systems has had to adapt to each of these forms in order to keep up with the times. The federal system initially was set up to serve the 13 original colonies and was able to maintain their own powers given by the powers vested in each colonies individual constitutions. Federalism or the split of power between colonies and the federal or nation governing body was simply to form agreements among one another in regards to laws. The state governments possessed the powers given to them by their state constitutions which was known as reserved powers and concurrent powers were state and federal government