Martial-Race Theory

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The ‘Martial-Race Theory’
Another major reason behind Punjab’s excessive appearance in the Indian Army was the ‘Martial-Race Theory’. The Peel Commission’s recommendations of 1859 recommended that there must be a balance in all the armies in India which means that there will be an equal participation of each region. This remained the recruiting formula of Indian Army for almost two decades. Later in 1880s the recruiting trend changed when Lord Roberts, Commander in-Chief of the Indian Army (1885-1893) proposed that certain races or classes of people in the Sub-continent may perform better in the battlefield as compared to the rest. This laid the foundation of the ‘Martial-Race Theory’ which stated that the not all the races are equal in terms
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The First World War (1914-1918) witnessed distinguished participation of Punjab in the Indian Army. On the global canvass, the time of the First World War was that mass development in terms of technology and its application. Major Powers round the world were engaged in aviation development and tens of thousands of aircrafts were made before the war. This was the time when strategic war and the ideas of strategic bombing were floated and being practiced. Citizens were given war sense and were made aware of different war alarms including that of ‘warning’ and ‘all clear’. The First World War resulted into many economical and structural changes especially in Europe. Gerd Hardach in “The First World War 194-1918” calls this Great War, the ‘event of Europe’. Gred argues that prior to the war; Great Britan was engaged in trade with Europe and other continents. He has mentioned the highest volume of Britain trade as compared to other countries. But, as soon as the war broke out in 1914, it made all the international laws null and halted all continued trade with other countries. Since Britain was engaged in the war, it had to employee the maximum resources in the event, which it did. One of the consequences of the First World War was the clash over colonies and overseas markets (trade) with Germany. Prior to that Germany and Britain were sharing good relation of friendship. In fact Queen Victoria’s eldest daughter was married to the German crown prince who died of cancer after reigning just for three months. After he died, his alienated son needed to own power for Germany and started clash with Britain over colonies and trade. Now the Britain were to defend its assets including the colonies and to fight the enemies it got support from its colonies out of which India had remained a key player in this

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