His teachings were spread not only by his faith in God, but from his education he had received and from the experiences he had taken throughout his life. Lutheranism, 95 Theses, the decrease of indulgences, and other Renaissance religious advancements were only possible because of Martin Luther. Luther’s life is extremely important in the history of the Renaissance or else the events spoken of may hav3 never taken place. Martin Luther, the father of Lutheranism, and revolutionizer of the Protestant Reformation changed the world for the
Christians believe the God of Christianity to be transcendent (ultimate and independent) and immanent (involved in world) (Erickson 87). Christian belief of immanence and His affection for humans and humanity does not necessitate Him constituted from the similar essence as
Cromwell's time as Lord Protector changed how the Crown and Parliament interacted and worked with each other. His army laid the foundation for the Army's in England that came after. And he changed the landscape of religion in the isles, strengthening the Protestant majority and tearing down the Irish Catholics. His crusade against Charles the I and subsequent reign inspired the American colonists to go against military dictators. Though his time as a leader is remembered both negatively and positively his influence cannot be
Far from being monolithic, the Protestant Reformation spawned many offshoots. John Calvin came from a legal background and stressed the sovereignty of God. Like Luther, he became a formidable force in the Reformation, molding Reformed theology. Zwingli's attitude toward worship is best represented by his statement: Nothing in worship should be contrary to Scripture, but Scripture ought to explicitly sanction what is to be
Luther taught that salvation and, consequently, eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God 's grace through the believer 's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin. His theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge from God and opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, and all of Luther 's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. Martin Luther contributed much to both the Renaissance and early Modernity.
Nevertheless, it is important to understand that the Reformation was not a single historical event; it was a lengthy and complex process that occurred over an extended period of time. As such, it has been perceived to consist of several lesser changes that contributed to one overarching movement. The focus for many historians concentrated on the political machinations that underlined the development of the Reformation. This type of Reformation historiography was typically advanced by political historians and biographers. All perceived the English Reformation as being a clear consequence of an ‘imposition from above’ by the Catholic Church.
It achieved this goal by creating devout Christian followers who wanted to spread their newfound devotion to religion. While the church was first created to spread good, the church became increasingly corrupt during Martin Luther’s time. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church decided to teach that salvation was possible through works of righteousness that pleased God. While this statement does encourage acts of good, the church abused its meaning by proposing a new means of absolving oneself from sin. This new method was purchasing indulgences.
As nation-states began to grow and strengthen secular rulers protected the Protestant Reformers against the Pope, because they too began to criticize the Pope’s authority (11). These movements, along with the organized teachings of Lutheranism, allowed for the spreading of multiple devotions within different churches for Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Protestantism
For negative freedom, it is the sphere of control and for positive freedom it is the question of who is in control (129). The driving question for “positive” political freedom is “what or who, is the source of control or interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather than that” (Berlin, 122). This sense of political freedom requires a person being his own master and not relying on any outside influence (131). Positive political freedom is about man thinking for ones self and deciding for ones self, thereby establishing who they are to the world, on their own accord. Rationality and reason are also central to this sense of political freedom.
His 95 theses which propounded two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deed was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been advanced before, Martin Luther codified them at them at the moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by the Luther’s ideas. Luther’s writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West. His revolutionary ideas served as the catalyst for the eventual breaking away from the Catholic Church.
Has your answers to either of the first two questions changed after reading article 1? My answers to the first two questions would not change, since my belief in God as the Creator and Sustainer of life is a foundational viewpoint for me. Do you believe in absolute truth? Is there more than one way/religion to understanding absolute truth about God and the meaning of life?
Prior to 1550, the European continent was dominated by Catholicism and had been for centuries. However, Protestantism first introduced by Martin Luther had begun to make inroads in the Holy Roman Empire and Nordic countries. Despite the growing popularity of these new religions, the majority of monarchs saw religious diversity as a weakness. Instead, most rulers pursued Religious uniformity to ensure political stability and strength. Examples of monarchs attempting to achieve religious university abound from Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, to Rome, and to England.
Martin Luther believed that salvation wasn’t reached by the traditions that Church taught to follow but by “Faith alone,grace alone, Scripture alone” a saying that is used to summarize his ideal. What triggered his will to speak out about his new understanding was when Pope Leo X authorized the selling of indulgences, a document that if purchased will shorten the amount of time one spends in the purgatory. Other factors of anticlericalism were also important in the start of his protest against the Catholic Church, but the sale of indulgences that was even conducted in his hometown made it clear to him that Church does not care about the poor or the people in general but rather wants to advance its grip in power. For the above reasons, Luther believed that a change in the customs of the Catholic Church must take place. However English monarch Henry VIII had individual reasons for such an inspired fight for the separation from the church.