The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
(Scruton, 2001, p.80) People have free will to subject themselves to objective, ethical, moral law. Kant developed his concept of autonomy in which rational individuals able to overcome heteronomous factors, especially include one’s own desire and interest. These elements may trigger conflict with reason and rationality of oneself. (Scruton, 2001, p.80) In this case, reason become a essential factor to how people act morally. Reason has the ability to govern freedom, and therefore it also determines behaviors.
In his famous work “The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals” Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy which depends on fundamental concepts of reason and tries to show that while making moral choices we should use reason. Kant, as an Enlightenment philosopher, places all his confidence in reason. In the first chapter, we generally recognized that an action is moral if and only if it is performed for the sake of duty. Duty commands itself as imperative. There are two types of imperatives as hypothetical and categorical.
His “check” metaphor is an accurate representation of the false promises made to the American people. The check in his metaphor is the promise of inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness made by the Constitution. The American people turned in this “check” and had it returned marked “insufficient funds.” This represents the equality denied to black individuals by the US. This metaphor was empowered to even greater heights by Dr. King making it relatable to his audience. Dr. King understood that the best way to have his audience sympathize with his purpose was to make them relate to his argument.
Martin Luther King Jr had the best approach on Civil Rights for the African Americans “ Non Violent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and establish such creative tension that a community has constantly refused to negotiate…” Martin Luther King Jr wanted to establish peace between the whites and the African Americans, but some people disagreed and wanted to take a different approach thinking that it would work better than non-violence.. In the NAACP document it states “ … If the methods have any single common denominator, it is that the have always been non-violent. Today non-violence is stridently challenged on the premise that Negroes must defend themselves when attacked. “ If the approach of non-violence has worked for six decades
As William Ury states in his book, The Third Side: Why We Fight And How We Can Stop, “human beings have a host of emotional needs - for love and recognition, belonging and identity, for purpose and meaning to lives. If these are subsumed into one word, it might be respect.” Respect is an integral part of human nature. This is also proved by many philosophers. The first Western philosopher to acknowledge respect, Immanuel Kant, argued that respect for persons is the most important element of moral theory. His ethical theory states “all persons are owed respect just because they are persons, that is, free rational beings.” He emphasizes that humans are “ends in themselves” with an absolute dignity who must be respected.
The first interesting discussion about the idea of the decision from citizens to accept the rules of the law can be found in Platon and Socrates thoughts, but Thomas Hobbes it is seen as the philosopher who firstly analyzed the modern Social Contract perspective. Hobbes´ theory generally it is divided in two sections: the human behavior or motivation and his social contract theory, burn from the idea of state of nature, which means in his own words “the liberty that each man has to make his own decisions about how to use his own power for the preservation of his own nature—i.e. his own life—and consequently the liberty· of doing anything that he thinks is the aptest”. At the same time, Hobbes built the theory of Subjectivism to explain how humans are self-interested, as we pursue our individual best interest, so our motivation is based on the desire to improve our situation, and generally satisfy our own, individually subjective desires as possible. In addition, Hobbes argues that we are rational.
Therefore Black Power is a reaction to the failure of white power. It is a symbolism of a mind and action shift from a devotion of a non-violent direct action to a violent necessary action for change. Even though Martin Luther King didn’t deny the existence of the violent progressive strategy he didn’t believe in it. He was different from all the other black power theoreticians in that he preached a black-white alliance towards change (non-separatism). Carmichael as the leader of SNCC abandoned the nonviolent strategy and went for separatism, non-integration and creating economic opportunities for black Americans through Black Nationalism and the militant action.
Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome. Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical.