He used the concept of civil society to explain a sphere that is distinct from the state. He attempted to resolve the private vs. public dichotomy in his own way by incorporating the civil society in the state structure. Nonetheless, Hegel could not come up with a systematic theory of civil society. Karl Marx (1818-1882) was critical of the bourgeois theories
In the Second Treatise of Government, John Locke argues that citizens have the right of revolution when the government acts against their interests. To Locke, revolution was an obligation, however, many other philosophers do not view it that way. Edmund Burke, for example, believed that gradual change was better than all out revolution. Other philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes believed that the people need to obey their government due to a ‘social contract’ between them and the state. This essay will argue that a right to revolution needs to be granted to citizens in the case of a tyrannical government because it is the government’s duty to serve its citizens, and if it fails to do so, the people need to replace it with an alternate form of governance.
The paper dwells into the evolution of the concept of reservations and the problems posed by it. It also provides a theoretical solution that will be helpful in reducing inequality. John Rawls and Affirmative Action John Rawls propounded what is called the “Ideal Theory”. The theory explains what constitutes an ideal and just society. But what it lacks is a solution to an unjust or a non-ideal society.
Comparison of Communism and Socialism Introduction: Communism and Socialism which are regarded as the two different shades of Marxism are often used inter-changeably. Both the systems are opposed to the capitalistic system and share some similarities as well as differences in their approaches. The theory of Communism developed by German philosopher Karl Marx, is both a political and an economic system that is based on the collective ownership of the production of goods. The word Communism has been originated from a Latin word meaning “common”. Communism rejects individual ownership of industry, and promotes the manufacture of goods in order to satisfy the basic needs of the economy and the people.
He believed in personal liberty, constitutionally limited government and the free market of ideas and goods. In fact, with his strong liberal views Hayek was not so optimistic toward the future of liberalism on the political scene (p.12). He stated that there is little space for those who promote liberalization of the society as well as the notion of a free market. That is so because such ideas and in some point actions are usually absorbed by strong powers which show no signs of liberty at all. Rather totalitarian views and planned socialism with the ideas of overall control of a state and a society.
Thomas Hobbes has been famous for his philosophies on political and social order. In many of his scholastic works, he maintains the position that in the presence of a higher authority the duty of the rest of mankind is to simply obey. The discourse on this essay will focus on his views expressed in his book The Leviathan. In this book Hobbes’ views are fundamentally entrenched in his description that in a society with no higher authority life would be nasty, short and brutish (? ).This essay will engage in discussion by first laying out the conceptual arguments of anarchy and the human state of nature.
Hans Morgenthau formulates the basic principles of political realism. Initially, the author justifies the idea that the basis of international politics are the laws of political behavior, the roots of which should be sought in human nature. He tried to substantiate the idea that the power is associated with the immutability of human nature and it is the basis of the state’s behavior on the world stage. He believes that the world is imperfect. To create a rationally justified political order, it is necessary to take into account the imperfect nature of man.
Thomas Hobbes developed what is now known as the Social Contract Theory. This is the theory that to live in a functioning society contracts, or agreements, must be put in place to restrict the freedom of men in order to maintain peace. Although this is a political theory, Hobbes makes claims on human nature that are harsh and seemingly cynical. I will lay out an argument for why his theory seems to lack the incorporation and recognition of natural human emotions. Then, I will explain how Hobbes would counter this argument using examples from his philosophical text, Leviathan.
For instance, who uses power or where is power located are two of the main concerns of conflict theory. In fact, Coser, himself says power is not a bad thing but it is a factor that helps shape relations within a society. In his theory, Coser tries bringing out the meaning of conflict in a society; how a conflict starts in a society; how unequal distribution of power within a society leads to conflict and the consequences that it brings along. Coser drew most of his theories from Georg Simmel, rather than drawing his theories from Marx and Weber. Coser manages to be distinct from rest of his contemporaries because he was the first to consider the functional consequences of conflict.
In order to restore freedom to mankind, Rousseau suggests there has to be a social contract. The establishment of a social contract in the society requires mankind to wilfully let a political entity govern him and his private property. This kind of submission is called the general will and it aims to govern mankind by allowing free and equal co-existence. Rousseau’s argument is based on the single notion that mankind is generally good by nature, but made evil by the society. However, his argument is not plausible since it does not explain how a society which he claims to be evil is composed of good mankind.