Marx’s ideas on this exploitation refers to a feudalistic driven society, where the performance of labour is over and above what is needed to produce goods consumed by the labourer. An example to sustain his theory is of when the exploiter ends up with a surplus. The proletariat or working class is therefore not paid the full value of what she or he produces, the rest is the surplus value which is the capitalist’s profits, and according to Marx known as the ‘unpaid labour of the working class’. The bourgeoisie force down wages of the proletariat to increase their own profits and this creates a more direct conflict between the classes and gives rise to the development of class consciousness in the working class. The working class, through trade unions and other struggles becomes conscious of itself as an exploited class.
This arise from the French socialist and communist literature. The german “True” socialists, the revolutionary Proletariat and with the help of the over concentration of capital, they threaten and abolish the “industrial and political supremacy” of the Bourgeoisie (The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Chapter III, paragraph 15, page 31). The second category is the bourgeois or conservative socialism. This ideology comes from the awareness of the bourgeoisie such as humanitarians, economists or improvers which fight against the proletariat suffering and inequalities. They try to attempt to mitigate the injustices of the working class within society, by providing then the benefits they deserve, such as; “free trade, prison reform and protective duties” (The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Chapter III, paragraph 7, page 32).
However, some of Marx’s statements proved to be false. One of the predictions that Marx made in Communist Manifesto that turned out to be false was his statements about the industrial revolution. Marx was convinced that the more capitalist countries developed, the more enslaved one of the social classes would become. Marx stated, “Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist… Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois state; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine.” At the time it seemed like Marx made a good point as many people in capitalist countries worked long hours in factories. However, we now know this to be false because citizens in capitalist countries such as America enjoyed a higher standard of living than communist countries such as the Soviet Union ever had.
Beard, an influential American historian, argued that the overthrow of slavery was an economic and a capitalist revolution because the war happened as because of a class conflict between Yankee capitalist and southern planter aristocracy. Another thing McPherson wrote in the book is Lincoln’s position during the war. At first, he
Developed in the 19th century by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels was a theory called Marxism. In dictionary terms one can say that Marxism is “a system of economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors.” (Business Dictionary) But what is Marxism? Let’s look at it this way that if a theory ignores the economic realities of human culture then it is misinterpreting it. For Karl Marx; Historical Materialism was the driving force in society which was a notion involving the distribution of resources, production, material gains and such matters. Therefore, for Marxism attaining and maintaining economic power is what fuels all political and social motives of people.
War communism had a devastating impact on the peasants and proletariat in Russian society between 1918 and 1928. However, the New Economic Policy that followed the Civil War effects was opposite, raising living standards and reinstating support for the Bolshevik party. Vladimir “Lenin” Ulyanov, known as the head of the notorious Bolshevik party, introduced War Communism (1918-1921) and the NEP (1921-1928). As Martin McCauley states “If War Communism was a leap into socialism then the New Economic Policy was a leap out of socialism” The aims of War Communism and the NEP were both successful in a large number of areas, however, the effects of both policies were not all favourable. Most of the population disagreed with both of the policies, however, the benefits and the positive effects outweighed for many.
It heavily blew the social and political systems of the eighteenth century. The revolution led to the reformation of the administrative systems of various other nations. It not only strengthened the military across France, but also reflected militarization across Europe. One of the momentous consequences of the French Revolution was the imposition of a political culture, which bred violence and doomed moderation, finally imposing absolute power. The revolution led to a greater intrusion of the central state into the local affairs.
The Fascism had a look about the changing the rules of the government.”The Communist inspires the Fascism because the government was trying to change the whole rules to make it better but the people did not want the rules to be changed.”The Fascism had a lot of rules that they had change here are some of the changes Powerful and Continuing Nationalism, Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights, and Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause.” “Strongly against international financial markets and usury.” “Production is organized
Marx thought that social stratification is created by the unequal access to the productive properties. The capitalist or also called the bourgeoisie, exploit their workers by only paying them as much as necessary to scratch a living. The workers are not aware of their invidious position as they take the ideologies, norms and values which the capitalists promotes, for granted. Marx predicted a revolution of the workers. He believed that the proletariat will become aware of its misery and will unite to overthrow the capitalists and capitalism.
There for I believe that communism as Marx describes it is not necessarily ideal, but he does make certain points questionable and he helps understand what type of society we are living in and how communism can change a society as a whole. Even though Marx did speak about extremist measures and seemed like an advocate that was convinced on to use any way to make a society work such as revolutions and a violence in order to have rights and freedoms one can see that he had a well though out extreme way to transition from a capitalist society to a communist society. “We have seen above, that the first step in the revolution by the working class, is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling as to win