There are many different ideologies in politics. From a social-scientific viewpoint, an ideology is more or less coherent set of ideas that provides a basis for organized political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power relationship. Some of those ideologies are liberalism, conservatism socialism. Italy focus is on Fascism. Fascism is a political ideology in which the state possesses all the power over the country. Actually, fascism is not suitable for the public compared to the modern and fairer ideologies like socialism and democracy. Fascism requires all citizens to work solely for the government .It is a totalitarian nationalist ideology. Also Fascism is structurally rigid and authoritarian.
Meanwhile, the theory of Communism was theoretically developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848, with the writing of “The Communist Manifesto” (Heywood, Politics 41). Communism is a system in which all economics and politics are synthesized into one classless state which is most commonly associated with common ownership and people 's leadership by a political party. Although both ideologies coincide in a few aspects when in practice, Communism and Fascism feature different approaches to property and society. Similarities between Fascism and Communism First, under both despotic systems, the state controls the production system, industry, and trade.
Andre Abi Haidar PSPA 210 INTRODUCTION It is always difficult to write about and discuss Karl Marx, or more importantly the applications of Marx’s theories, due to the fact that he inspired and gave rise to many movements and revolutionaries, not all of which follow his theories to the point. Although Marx tends to be equated with Communism, it might not seem righteous to blame him for whatever shortcomings occurred when his theories were put to the test; Marx passed away well before the revolution in Russia, and he played no role in the emergence of the totalitarian regime at the time. When discussing Marx, however, Vladimir Lenin is one of the biggest highlights when it comes to studying the outcomes of Marx’s theories.
In bourgeoisie society, there is living labor, but it is used to increase collected labour but in a communist society, collected labour exists but it is broadened, improved and shows appreciation and encouragement to the existence of the laborer. Communist robs no man of the authority to apposite the products of civilization. Mark speaks about different divisions of communist and literature. He mentions the reactionary socialism which includes the bourgeois socialists which are individuals who fight against the bourgeoisie society and their development of production. They are against the bourgeoisie because they see their approach of life as a hazard.
Fascism by definition is a form of government which included an authoritarian and nationalistic system of government as well as social organization. In further explanation it is a form of government in which a dictator or emperor ultimately controls the government, the people are subjected to following the orders of their dictator or they will suffer the consequences. Despite the authoritarian style of government there are plenty uses for implanting this style of government. Various countries have utilized this, as well as it being one of the driving forces persuading those other countries to implement this form of government. Some countries who implemented this way of thinking was Japan, Germany, and. These countries did not all have the same
Benito Mussolini, a former social Journalist, who was the leader that seized power and coined the term of Fascism. His ideas were fascist that aligns more with the authoritarian of modernity, believing that everything an individual does needs to be for the State over all other motives. Fascism combines mass movement with the aggression of authoritarian nationalism, antisocialist, and anti-liberal values. Mussolini’s fascism represented a counterrevolution following the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Comparison of Communism and Socialism Introduction: Communism and Socialism which are regarded as the two different shades of Marxism are often used inter-changeably. Both the systems are opposed to the capitalistic system and share some similarities as well as differences in their approaches. The theory of Communism developed by German philosopher Karl Marx, is both a political and an economic system that is based on the collective ownership of the production of goods. The word Communism has been originated from a Latin word meaning “common”.
Social inequalities can be described as the differences in “income, resources, power and status” (Naidoo and Wills 2008, in Warwick-Booth 2013, 2) that advantage a social class, a group or an individual over another, and thereby establish social hierarchies. It also affects inequalities in regards to gender, race, access to health and education, and general living conditions. In sociology, the dichotomy between the conflict theory approach and the functionalist approach has led to a discordant opinion in regards to social inequalities. The conflict theory seems to admit that social inequalities needs to disappear in order to install a common and equal base for all individuals, whereas the functionalist approach believes that social inequalities
In 1919, Benito Mussolini described fascism as “A movement that would strike against the backwardness of the right and the destructiveness of the left.” That “Fascism sitting on the right, could also have sat on the mountain of the center… These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit. We don’t give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words.”
History is comprised of so many figures and personalities who have made their mark – positively and negatively. Some people have made such a profound impact that their names become immemorial. Such is the case Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator during the Second World War. His domestic and foreign policies at a time of war and turmoil that followed made him a name worthy of history books, even if these paint him in the negative light. His fascist focus and how he utilized this to manipulate Italians and the world, conveying the message that Italy no longer relies on class warfare and everyone is on an equal footing was appalling and amazing at the same time. He used the outright lie to make people rally around him, and once he got their
Karl Marx (1818-1883) considered himself not to be a sociologist but a political activist. However, many would disagree and in the view of Hughes (1986), he was ‘both – and a philosopher, historian, economist, and a political scientist as well.’ Much of the work of Marx was political and economic but his main focus was on class conflict and how this led to the rise of capitalism. While nowadays, when people hear the word “communism”, they think of the dictatorial rule of Stalin and the horrific stories of life in a communist state such as the Soviet Union, it is important not to accuse Marx of the deeds carried out in his name.
In the Communist manifesto, a well known quote of Marx, “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” This is introductory to the first part of the pamphlet and a conclusion to Marx’s theory about class struggle. Marx’s highly structured on how the class struggle emerges and affects the development of a society.
Communism believed in a classless society, while Fascism followed a dictatorship, but maintaining a dictatorship required the suppression of the people. Fascist ideology believed that “war alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it,” which requires constant violence to prove power (Lualdi 236). By 1924, Mussolini was able to gain 65% of the vote for fascism, but in 1933, the Nazi party only gained 44% of the vote, and even with a minority ruling party was able to gain control of the government. Both Mussolini and Hitler came into power through legal means, but Mussolini was named Prime Minister in the hopes of avoiding war but after gaining control. Yet after their legal rise into power, they used coercion and violence to further their fascist rulings.
In fact, the rich individuals prefer capitalism because they use their power to ensure that the poor remain oppressed, at their expense. Moreover, the book profoundly illustrates how work could lead to the dehumanization of people. I highly recommend this book to everybody who wants to understand the plight of workers in a capitalist nation. Notably, this book is relevant today, given that oppression in the workplace is yet to be eliminated. When people read this book, they get a picture of the mess created by the capitalist
The second pernicious influence is human resource exploitation. Laborers become more like work tools for industrial monopolies rather than human beings. Genders and age do not matter to the authority as they prioritize their benefits over the workers’. Not only do they have to suffer from exploitative boss, the proletariat is also made advantage of by other powers, such as landlords.