In order to properly understand the contradictions of a capitalist society, key concepts such as the structure of capitalism, social theories and how Marxism works must be taken into consideration. Marx’s analysis of the social theory had some key assumptions. According to Best (2003) Marx viewed the society we live in and its literature and politics parts as a factor determined by the capitalist mode of production. There are two parts to this mode, the economic base which is made of two further parts: the relations of production which refer to class relations and the forces of production that are made up of all things from nature that we need in order to produce commodities (Best, 2003). The Labour theory of value examines how it is indeed the workers who put the value into commodities; it explains the class exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie.
In their theories both highlight the division of labour and alienation as methods and results of maintaining control within a capitalist society. Durkheim coined the term social facts to describe the external and internal forces that habilitate individuals within a society. “….” . Social facts include values, cultural norms, and social structures comprise those sources that
Gurley (1984), Karl Marx 7 major contributions to political economy such as he established a framework, investigated the production and circulation processes of industrial capitalism, studied the processes of capital accumulation, one can find an economic theory of the state in Marx's writings, explained how workers are mystified by the system of capitalism, alienated within its production sphere, and misled by false solutions to their problems, investigated the future course of global capitalist and socialist development, and he examined the impact of capitalist expansion on less-developed countries an sketched outlines of the future socialist and communist societies. For the main element of Marx social theory such as all societies are stratified into distinct groups and classes, society is a product of class struggle and social change is more revolutionary than evolutionary, society is a totality, a structure of interrelated levels, social processes are never homogenous and uniform, but contradictory and dialectical, society and history are characterized by certain laws, but it is man who ultimately makes the world through his actions and praxis and class society is held together as much by ideology and as much by
Bourgeoisie the ruling class, exploits the proletariat. Capitalism is a process whereby "making money", becomes the dominant industry. Consumerism and financialization practices are a means to sustain the accumulation and flow of capital. The socialist mode of production that emerges when the accumulation of capital is no longer sustainable due to falling rates of profit in real production, and social conflict arising from the contradictions between the level of technology and automation in the economy with the capitalist form of social organization. Karl Marx made a distinction between and "upper-stage communism", and “lower stage communism" with the latter usually being called
Introduction Apartheid is a system of oppression that continues to have great effects on the country’s social, political and economic issues to this day. To ‘survive’ in the global economy, the newly elected democratic government decided to take control of the economy especially in places where the private sector did not dominate (Rumney, 2005:402). To combat the inequality that existed in the country while also making sure South Africa can compete in the global economy, the government opted for a more neo-liberal stance on capitalism. A free market economy is where all the factors of production (labour, land, and capital) are owned by private owners and not the government (Kates: 2014:1). People can set up their own businesses, with the main
What is an ideal society? An ideal society is defined as having an organized government, individuality and personal freedom, and class consciousness. An organized government is having an authoritative figure such as a president, ruler, or authoritative figure to take control of a country and or territory. Individuality and personal freedom is the idea in which people in society have the ability to express themselves via speech and self-expression. Class consciousness is the variation of wealth and the awareness and knowledge of other classes.
The system highly encourages the ideals of individualism. The member is responsible for his own actions to take initiative and accomplish personal achievements. The government’s job is to protect these individuals as they strive for their goals, they should not intervene in the economy. The ideals of democratic socialism would be against this way of thinking as they believe in a centrally planned economy that emphasises equality for all classes. They would argue that the capitalist system is prone to unemployment of workers, inflation, and monopolies that causes inequality between members of society.
In ‘Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts’ (1844), Marx considers labor as a conscious act, as opposed to just a physical act. Marx identidied four components of alienation: alienation from product of labour, alienation from productive activity, alienation from the human species, and alienation from fellow human beings. In today’s capitalistic society, the means of production are under external ownership, making “the result and purpose of labor appear external to the worker”, as compared to the primitive feudal times where one would produce for their own consumption and use. Marx points out the alienation of workers separates individuals from their labour and how the capitalists are segregated from the workers. Alienation demonstrates a socio-psychological condition in which
We can see in democracy economic system, the branches of production which is important for the country and dominated public life are controlled by the state. The earth, water and natural resources controlled by the state and will be used optimally for prosperity to the people. Citizens are free to choose desired work and have the right to work and decent livelihood. Belonging to individual right acknowledged and its use should not be contrary with the community interests. Besides had the positive characteristic, a democracy economic system also had things to avoid.