The most significant impact that Marx theory of Marxism is his emphasis on class struggle a division between classes who clash in the pursuit of class interests. The first class, The Bourgeoisie or the materialist class owns and controls the means of production in society. The bourgeoisie developed hegemonic rule by using their economic power to centralise political power and to control all aspects of production including ideology, culture, state apparatuses. The state thus emerged as a repressive instrument, controlled by capitalist interests, to foster the reproduction of a society with a strict social hierarchy and hegemony one that fosters the maintenance of the bipolar class structure. The bourgeoisie has control of industry, or the economic engine of society, but also because those within this class seized state power by creating and controlling the post-feudal political system.
Marx had his own theory of Marxism. This theory encourages the vanguard party to set up a worker’s state that will then set up the conditions for socialism. Marxism considers the loyalty based on class is the most important idea. Marx said that the common values of the industrial workers from the end of the nineteenth century are far stronger than other values. Now back to Leninism.
Marx’s main concern was that of capitalism and class conflict. In the words of Giddens and Sutton (2013), capitalism is ‘a system of production that contrasts radically with all previous economic systems.’ It was Marx’s belief that all societies, including capitalist societies, are divided into classes, with one being the dominant class. In the case of capitalism, there are two main classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Class conflict, Marx believed, was what encouraged the evolution of society. To quote Marx himself, The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.
Developed in the 19th century by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels was a theory called Marxism. In dictionary terms one can say that Marxism is “a system of economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors.” (Business Dictionary) But what is Marxism? Let’s look at it this way that if a theory ignores the economic realities of human culture then it is misinterpreting it. For Karl Marx; Historical Materialism was the driving force in society which was a notion involving the distribution of resources, production, material gains and such matters. Therefore, for Marxism attaining and maintaining economic power is what fuels all political and social motives of people.
1. INTRODUCTION In this essay I will briefly explain what Marxism and modernism are. Marxism is an economic and social system of ideals created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. “Marxists argue that capitalist societies are organized around social classes defined in terms of their unequal rights and powers over the means of production and over the products of economic production” (Ritzer & Ryan (ed). ©2011:374).
Take North Korea as an example, the farmland and food production are under the control of the government. In modern usage, it is written with a capital C and aims to overthrow the capitalist order; on the other hand, the capitalist conditions gave rise to modern Communism. It wants to revolutionise by establishing a classless society, which everyone is equal. In other words, Communism and Socialism do have something in common, which is the objective— eliminating private ownership and the bourgeoisie. Furthermore, they also use the same symbol, which is hammer and sickle.
In the 19th century a German Jew named Karl Marx outlined a new economic theory with political overtones. He put his ideas down in a book called “Das Kapital”. His ideas were revolutionary and at once raised the hackles of the capitalistic world. Fervor swept across the world and Europe in particular and this led to the famous October revolution of 1917, which brought the Bolsheviks to power in Russia. Times have now changed and so called Soviet state collapsed.
In his writing, he was focused on the social classes struggles for power with the working class against its capitalistic leaders. Marx founded that the market binds the individual producer to the market from which he consumes, as he is dependent on capital for his survival. The worker thus creates a surplus value for the upper class he labors for, helping large-scale industries dominate the market, and creating a larger gap in income inequality, inevitably leading to conflict. With this, Marx took a materialist approach in his philosophy, where he viewed society to be ever changing, and systematically developed in favor of the most dominant productive
In their Manifesto, Marx and Engels predicted that one day the proletariat of the world would rise up in an inevitable revolution. This is based around the theory of how the world is defined by a struggle between and among economic classes, which will eventually lead to the establishment of a provisional vanguard state that would slowly transition a society to a communist society by abolishing class altogether. The procedure and the process of the revolution that is to occur, is built upon Marx 's famous generalization that ‘the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles’[ Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, ed. by Jeffrey C. Isaac, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012).]. Marx 's and Engels’s theory should be taken into account in relation to the context of the hardships that were suffered by many 19th-century workers in England, Germany and France.
Its writers such as Albert Mathiez and Albert Soboul, reflect their political positions within the French Communist Party, and their influence on events such as the Russian Revolution. (1) In Soboul’s writing, using a Marx’s socio-economic foundation argues that the Revolution occurrence was an essential social and economic transformation of French society. This “bourgeois” revolution reflects the middle-class formation of consciousness, and it’s uprising to overthrow the Ancien Regime, the political elite of the time. Soboul asserts that the revolutionist consisted of “capitalist,” that comprised a conscious middle class, and this was the revolutionary push from feudalism to capitalism. (2) The distinction from feudalism to capitalism demonstrates an essential element signifying the importance of the Revolution in Marxist views.