A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of most property in common which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Key Proponents Karl Marx, Fredrik Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky. Robert Owen, Pierre Leroux, Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels, John Stuart Mill, Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw, Thorstein Veblen, Emma Goldman. Concept of State According to Marxian point of view, communism regards state as a negative institution that has been instrumental in the exploitation of the oppressed classes at the hands of the wealthy classes. Thus, communism wants to abolish state structure after attaining the goal of classless society.
‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment. In this alienated type of work place, workers are not only indifferent but are continually in competition which replaces forms of cooperation, everyone tries to survive as best they can. Like the capitalist who controls the workers productivity while maximising their own profits for only their benefit as capitalists are in competition of what they sell and not in the interest of the workers.4 lastly the worker is alienated from their each individual creativity and we
The term class struggle refers to the ideology of Karl Marx, which stated that there would be conflicts of interest between the working class and the ruling class in a capitalist society. Ironically enough techniques like the Brechtian forms mentioned above, was abetted or supported elites and social scientists whose interests were mainly on forms that posed threat to power
INTRODUCTION This essay will discuss the concept of one of the greatest economists, a philosopher, a journalist, a historian, also known and believed to be one of the founding fathers of sociology. Karl Marx, made a contribution to sociology in the 19th century. He developed a sociological theory that stated that human societies progress through a struggle between two distinct classes, namely; the bourgeoise and proletariat. It claims that society is in conflict between the rich who own and control everything, and the poor who must work for the rich and be rewarded very little for their hard work. The theory is known as the conflict theory or the Marxist theory or Marxism, which is more concerned about the class struggle within the society, and how capitalism is not healthy for any society.
I’d like to show how Marxism and modernization are not as against each other as it is claimed, they in fact share many similarities. Marxism is a radical political philosophy that views world from economic and sociologist lenses. Marxism acknowledges that society comprises various classes of people and that capitalistic mode of economy further deepens this class structure by creating a gap between those haves and have-nots. In other words, Marxism believes that capitalism forms two major economic classes in the society; one is bourgeoisie that holds major forms of productions and processes most of the resources of the society while the other is proletariat that sells labour to bourgeoisie and virtually suffers from hand to mouth problem all the time. To make matter worse, modernization theory, which Marxism believes is an essential element of capitalism, further worsens the imbalances between the economic classes.
The preconditions of capitalism can be understood as the requirements for Marxism - what formulates the views of Marxism – due to Marx working hard to create a theory for the capitalist economy. By discussing the key concepts of Marxism, the preconditions of communism are being addressed, and when described complimentary to the contradictions of a capitalist society, the topic becomes more easily understandable. Karl Marx was a multifaceted man but was popularly known as an economist, political scientist, and one of the men who helped bring about communism (Heywood; 2013; 41). Marx observed society in any possible way he found that he could and through this,
The concept of cultural production is very much discussed by many theorists under the context of capitalism. According to Marx, the ideology and values of the ruling class is spread to the working class through what Engels called, the “false consciousness”. Marx posited that the control of the ruling class over the means of production includes not only the production of goods but also the production of ideas, values and beliefs. The working class suffers from “false consciousness” in that they are beckon to believe that the dominant ideology is in the best interest of the entire society. Through this phrase of “false consciousness”, the realities of exploitation and domination are concealed and obscured, thus allowing the ideology and values
Introduction I argue that Marxism is best explains the contemporary phenomenon of economic globalization. “Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation” . “Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. In Marxism, the concept of contradiction between economic and political relations was enacted into historical law. The Marxist position is that the mode of production does in fact determine the superstructure of political relations.
Marx thought that social stratification is created by the unequal access to the productive properties. The capitalist or also called the bourgeoisie, exploit their workers by only paying them as much as necessary to scratch a living. The workers are not aware of their invidious position as they take the ideologies, norms and values which the capitalists promotes, for granted. Marx predicted a revolution of the workers. He believed that the proletariat will become aware of its misery and will unite to overthrow the capitalists and capitalism.
As demonstrated by Marx and Engels in the introduction and development of instruments of labour, the division of labour and private property divide of people into social classes (i.e. the exploiting class and the exploited class). Alienation and contradiction – expressed through class struggles – are oppressive and dehumanizing, yet absolutely necessary for the general progress of the human society (Marx and Engels, 1965). Marx explains social change in endogenous terms, stressing the internal dynamics of the mode of production (Moratiu and Ignat 2011). From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change.