The concept of surplus value used by Karl Marx declared that workers not only create economic value through the wages paid to them but also through the more value of transforming economic resources into valuable products. This allowed economies to experience more profit through producing goods, rather than simply earning income from the sale of property. Marx believed that this additional income could be
Marxian Theory This essay is a critical analysis of the theories given by Karl Marx of class struggles and alienation with specific emphasis on the concept of 'bourgeois' and 'proletariat' and it is illustrated with the help of the Italian film 'The Bicycle Thief'. Karl Marx is a German sociologist and has given many theories till date. His theories of society are important as they are concentrated on economic issues whereby he has connected economic problems to social institutions and have inspired many communist regimes in the 20th century. "Marxism refers to the political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx in which the concepts of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society's allegedly inevitable development
Marx believed that the individual was not truly free because he was alienated. This alienation is the product of the market product, the division of labour and the division of society into classes that are antagonistic to each other. Marxism is not a unified theory. It can be defined as “a family of theories united by a common terrain of debate and question”. Thus, these last few years marked a decline of the consensus among marxists over many of the main elements of their own theoretical tradition.
The ideology developed at the time when people with a lot of wealth regarding land and money were being given high status in the society, and it is believed that they had strong control over those that were considered to be of a lower class ( Last 88) . So, Marx viewed society as a structure formulated depending on the way people achieve certain things for survival. Consequently, these obtained things relied on the infrastructure and this was regarded as an economic base that led to the capitalist system which was benefiting the rich people against the lower class. Thus, the system was composed of social institutions, for example, education, family, political, as well as a religion within the
Marx provided considerable insight into the gender relations of his own time, showing the need for a total transformation of society that would necessarily involve new relations between men and women. Even though he does not provide a complete full theory on gender his categories lead in the direction of a systematic critique of patriarchy that manifests itself in capitalism. Due to the absence of a concrete theory a number of Marx`s arguments on gender will be laid out followed by an elaboration on Engels writings. In his work “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts”, Marx argues that women`s general position within society could be perceived as a measure of development of society as a whole. The immediate, natural and necessary relation of human being to human being is also the relation of man [Mann] to woman
A common critique of Marxist theories in general is its complete disregard to any nuance created by factors such as race, gender, and religion. Haag raises this issue with the idea of a singular shared class consciousness, and pushes the idea of differentiation further. Workers themselves may genuinely have interests that align with the owning class and conflict with those of their own class; this state of class consciousness may not function as intended. (Haag, 1987, 28) In contrast to Lukács, rather than expanding and adjusting the theory, Haag uses this
Question A Marxist Perspective Its central aim is to provide an empirically well-founded description of phenomenon, to get the social implications; and to illuminate the historical process through which this phenomenon came to exist in the real world. Additionally, its aims at comprehend and explain reality using themes to make analysis and this is confirmed by research. This has methods such as phenomenology and Ethnomethodology. It produces knowledge on a social reality in order to transform it. Therefore understanding reality becomes a main goal to drive the historical process and historical world.
Marxist perspectives central aims are to provide an empirically well-founded description of phenomenon, to get the social implications; and to illuminate the historical process through which this phenomenon came to exist in the real world. Additionally, its aims at comprehend and explain reality using s themes analysis and this is confirmed by research. This has methods such as phenomenology and Ethnomethodology. Positivism perspective This is based on a notion that science is the only way to learn about the truth and this perspective belongs to epistemology which is denoted as philosophy of knowing. It majorly depends on quantifiable observations which lead to statistical analysis of the data.
According to Marx, the value of a product is measured in units of simple average labour. Though Marxian theory of value is based on the Ricardian theory of value, there is one main difference. Ricardo believed that the relative values of different commodities were proportional to the amount of labour expended on them, Marx argued that amount of time invested in labour determines the absolute value of goods. Thus labour is what defines the value of a product and Marx suggested that the whole fruit of labour must be received by the labourers as there is no thing that has any value devoid of human labour involved in its acquisition. This was the foundation of thought which lead to Surplus Value that capitalists extract out of exploitation of the labourers.