Marxist Theory Of Modernization Theory

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Modernization theory had emerged in the wake of the Second World War as a development theory, which had state-led Keynesian economic principles at its heart. The western world believed that this model would not only be the solution to reconstruct European economies that had been ravaged by neo-classical economic policies in the post-World War I period, but also to bring developing economies at to a western standard. In the 1980s the world had experienced a rebirth of neo-classical economics and the state-led model of development was perceived more as problem than a solution. Nevertheless, with the questioning of the neo-liberal school, modernization theory has again begun to establish itself in today 's scholarship.
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During the Cold War era (1947 - 1991), two versions of modernization theory were prominent.
Marxist view
The Marxist theory of modernization theorized that as nations developed, adopting a communist approach to governing, such as eradicating private property, would end conflict, exploitation, and inequality. Economic development and social change would lead developing nations to develop into a society much like that of the Soviet Union.
Capitalist view
The capitalist version of modernization theorized that as nations developed, economic development and social change would lead to democracy. Many modernization theorists of the time, such as W. W. Rostow, argued that when societies transitioned from traditional societies to modern societies they would follow a similar path. They further theorized that each developing country could be placed into a category or stage of development. Rostow 's stages of development are:
• Traditional - an agricultural based
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Modernization is the term used for the transition from the traditional society of the past to modern society as it is found today in the West. Modernization or development theory presents the idea that by introducing modern methods in “technology, agricultural production for trade, and industrialization dependent on a mobile labor force,” the underdeveloped countries will experience a strengthening in their economies (Bonvillain, 191). There were many proponents of Modernization Theory, such as, Walter Rostow, W.A. Lewis, Talcott Parsons, and Daniel Lerner. They all felt that the rest of the world needed to look to the Western model of modernity and pattern their society like the West in order to
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