Begin in the early 1990s, the final wave of feminist movement seek for challenges that turned back upon the second-wave to question whether the second-wave movements are unilaterally favorable to the women. While the previous two waves focused on political and social priorities, the third-wave movement stressed on the rejection of any kind of standardized distinction. In this phase, the women broke the boundaries by destabilized the notions of feminism. “Reality is conceived not so much in terms of fixed structures and power relations, but in terms of performance within contingencies” (The Three Waves of Feminism). In this phase, the feminist put the defining and female beauty as subject with urging women to take diverse role in social and political aspect.
The spirit of both documents continues to inspire the agenda of feminist movements the world over, regarding recognition of women's human rights. Published in the year 1792, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written by Mary Wollstonecraft as a critique of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand- Perigord‟s report (1791) to the French National Assembly which stated that women should only receive domestic education. In this book Wollstonecraft responds to those theorists of the eighteenth century who believed women should not get rational education. Wollstonecraft challenged the then prevailing perception of woman`s nature, rationality and intellect and her place in the society. She also questioned inconsistent arguments of philosophers like Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Milton about the status of women in society.
However, the beginning First-Wave Feminism had a primary focus on various inequalities between men and women. Feminists were still developing the courage to speak up for their rights. A famous example of an early feminist work is A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, a book written in 1792 by a woman named Mary Wollstonecraft. The author, Wollstonecraft was an early English feminist, she is famous for her written works, mainly those regarding equality for women. The book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, argues in favor of the education of women, that females are not accesories for their husbands.
She was a feminist formed the term “birth control.” This is the devise help to prevent the pregnant. She try to promote the women’s rights and hope women to protect their own body and decided to give a birth control. Birth control changed a lot of women because they can consider weather they want a child or not. Sanger later founded the American Birth Control League.
However, the 19th century saw many important works regarding women’s rights being published. One of the most significant of these was John Stuart Mill and his wife Harriet’s 1869 book The Subjection of Women (832). Mill used his unique position as a member of Parliament to have his opinion be heard and carry weight. His wife contributed to the book prior to her untimely death, and the arguments presented were an affront to the norms of European society (“The Subjection”). His opinions defending women’s rights were logical and appealed to humanistic values, arguing that humankind was being held back from its full potential by confining half of the population to the household and not educating them (“The Subjection”).
This book also had positive and negative points. For example, a positive point is how women were trying to become independent, as well as gain their individual rights. “In a lengthy series of resolutions, Cady Stanton and the others called for an end to all discrimination based on sex. Cady Stanton’s appropriation of the Declaration of Independence was a brilliant propagandistic stroke.” (Banner 40-41) In the attempt of gaining their rights, Cady Stanton and other women gathered the strength to speak demand their suffrage.
The issues of the second wave is known for women careers outside of their home, wage gaps, sex discrimination, and women representations, and fighting notions of motherhood. The third wave explained as having the stereotypes. The third wave is different than most feminist theories and is a response to the backlash of women after the second wave. Everyone has their own version of feminism and their own idea of what it is and thats what I like about how this author explains in detail of her own opinions, topics, and ideas of the way feminism, mothers, and women in general interact in America today.
The National Organization for Women aimed to promote women 's ideas, eliminate discrimination, and protect the equal rights of women in all aspects of life. Friedan ignited the second wave of American feminism by writing The Feminine Mystique. Friedan 's audience would most likely be women who want their rights and are annoyed with the housewife role. In her article, "The Importance of Work," Friedan uses several means of persuasion and different types of rhetorical strategies to describe the change in human identity. Friedan uses logos, the ability to convince her audience by logic and reasoning, throughout her article to describe facts that took place in 1963.
Highlighted by Berebitsky was the direction that Gillian Thomas’s account of the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that was not focused on women’s concerns; nor was the 1968 vote to remove the draft exemption for law school students according to Thomas author of “Because of Sex. ”-Thomas exposes the far reaching effects that suggested that Law school seats suddenly opened for women. Further, Berebitsky describes how Gillian Thomas, Attorney for the A.C.L.U. had suggested in her new book many of the women in the struggle for equal rights went on to fight discrimination in the workplace. Worker Rights in these two bills changed the working world for women. Berebitsky’s critique of Thomas’s writings allows us to follow in a linear manner why the reader should know about these laws and understand there impact almost 40 years later.
Sophocles play “Antigone” introduces a lot of debatable topics such as Human law vs Divine laws, pride, but most importantly the topic of woman’s movement for empowerment. Long before 442 B.C.E, women were belittled because of their gender however, after the birth of “Antigone” it demonstrated a strong outreach towards women and their roles in society ”Antigone, a woman who defines King Creon’s edict without any fear, doubts, or regrets. This courageous woman, the fruit of incest, has fascinated philosophers in the nineteenth century, inspired playwrights in the twentieth century, and intrigued feminist thinkers and activists for decades” (Söderbäck). Birth from a respected bloodline, Antigone doesn’t feel respected at all within her town, especially from her uncle Creon who became entitled as the King after Antigone’s blood
Mary Wollstonecraft was a radical Enlightenment writer. In one of her most famous literatures, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Wollstonecraft envisions an efficacious society founded upon reason. Reason is the foundation of all intellect. If all members in society are equally intelligent, progress will be made to advance society. Wollstonecraft believes solving the disparities between women and men through an equal education is fundamental to the progression of society.
Mary Wollstonecraft is a key figure in the early beginnings of the women’s rights movement. Wollstonecraft, born in 1759, in London, England, experienced firsthand the inequality and oppression expressed towards women during this time. Throughout her life, she fought against her odds and worked to create equality between genders. In her most well-known work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, published in 1792, Wollstonecraft argues a simple point: women should be as educated as men and be treated with the same respect. Her arguments are straightforward and understandable, which is why they have made such a huge difference in the way women have been viewed and treated.
Women's rights Women are strong, powerful, and smart, women accomplish as many things men do. They accomplish them just as great as men do. Women like mary wollstonecraft, elizabeth stanton, and margaret sanger are reason why we have things we have and the power and freedom they proved that women are just as good as men. Mary Wollstonecraft was an english writer, philosopher,and an advocate of women's rights.
The 17th and 18th century was a time known as the age of enlightenment or the age of reason. John Locke, Voltaire, Adam Smith, and Mary Wollstonecraft were all part of the enlightenment philosophers of the age of reason. During the age of reason philosophers would gather to discuss about politics, economics, religion, and the social role of women. All of the enlightenment philosophers made a huge impact on how we live today by fighting for what they believed in by sharing their ideas and thoughts. Voltaire was an extraordinary leading historical supporter of tolerance, he made a great change on the equality of religion today.