Men are socialized into being dominant, aggressive, and unemotional. To be masculine one must reject everything feminine (Newson, 2015). Women must be passive, nurturing, submissive, and emotional. Gender roles are constantly imposed onto us until they feel normative. Sadly, women are taught that they must rely on men because they are too weak to be independent.
Gender role refers to those behaviors and attitudes that are considered to belong to one sex. Gender role is based on femininity and masculinity that differentiate women and men by giving men some roles and women which results to gender inequality. There some work in society that is regarded to belong to women such as cooking, taking care of children and other less important roles while men are given roles that makes them superior than women. Most of the gender roles associated with women makes them inferior and creates a room to be oppressed. Gender roles are constructed by society and attributed to women or men.
Differences in men’s and women’s speech People will consciously and unconsciously perform each identity. Language is a form of performance. The conventions of linguistic behaviour of men and women are strained from the performance of the felt and desired gender identity of a person. The above-mentioned conventions are based on natural discourse of the genders as well as on the ideologies of gendered speech behaviour within a society. Feminist movements realized that language was one of the instruments of female oppression by males.
The advertisement shows that women are silenced, because they have no say, in this particular example, it shows how man fully controls sexual life between man and woman. It gives the viewers feeling that women are there to satisfy men’s need, therefore only intimate parts are necessary, such as breast and lower body. It pictures women as less important and not as smart as man is. It almost gives a feeling that women’s brain is useless. The image also reveals emotional dependence on man.
This all has to do with the issue of status in social aspects. There is the general perception that the masculine traits occupy a higher position than feminine traits. Looking at the issue of sexual orientation, for woman behaving in a masculine way, it does not raise eyebrows, however if a man were to behave like a woman, this will no doubt be a big deal. The man will most certainly be referred to as a homosexual. In the workplace however it is the women on the receiving end in the event of deviation.
Unequal treatment towards opposite gender: The society who believes in gender decontamination do not treat men and women equally, it draws a boundary around women while men are free to do any thing they want to do and there are no boundaries for men. Woman are restricted to follow a particular pattern which is designed for them by society i.e men. There are feminists working in favor of woman and fighting for their rights. Misogyny: Misogyny is the hatred or dislike of women or girls. Misogyny can be manifested in numerous ways, including sexual discrimination, belittling of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification of women.
Labov (1990) refers to this phenomenon as Principle 1. While in stable sociolinguistic stratification men tend to use covert prestige and a higher frequency of non-standard forms, such as slang and incorrect grammar. Many explanations have been proposed as to why men and women tend to speak in this way. One theory suggests that because men’s occupation supposedly demonstrates their masculine status in society women have to rely on appearances and self-presentation because they have “less access to real power.”( Lodge,1997). According to Romaine (1978) “The females are clearly more concerned with the pressure exerted by local norms and asserting their status with the social structure”.
2.2 Theoretical Framework 2.2.1 Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity Brannon (2004), defines gender stereotype as beliefs about the psychological traits and characteristics of, as well as the activities appropriate to, men or women. Gender roles are interpreted by behaviours, but gender stereotypes are about the beliefs, views and attitudes towards masculinity and femininity. Therefore, gender stereotypes are very influential; they impact conceptualizations of women and men and establish social categories for each gender. These categories represent what people think, and even when beliefs vary from reality, the beliefs can be very powerful forces in judgments of self and others. He further classifies gender stereotype in two categories
The second model of gender, which I call “categorical theory”, treats women and men as pre-formed categories. This approach often appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to the biological difference of the sexes as the explanation of social behaviour. The focus is on some relation between the categories, which is external to their constitution as categories. This is, for instance, the logical structure underlying most discussion of equal employment opportunity. It is also found in much of the discussion of sexual harassment and gender violence.
Conflict Theory- By keeping women in subordinate roles, men ensure that they control the means of production and protect their privileges. Men will not voluntarily give up their current beneficial positions of power. Feminist Theory- It says that patriarchy is the cause of women’s oppression. Class, race, and gender intersect it in a way that privileges some women over others, though most women are still subordinate to most men. Consequences of Gender Stratification:- Rigid stereotyping can have psychological and social consequences for individuals • For men- guilt, anxiety; early