In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Active learning is a set of strategies that motivates students to learn by their own with the help of Knowledgeable others. The following examples of active learning are being used in this study; discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning, and inquiry-based instruction, think-pair-share, quick-writes, polling, cooperative learning, and student presentations. Another theory for which this study is also anchored is attributed to Frederick Herzberg the Motivation Theory. It is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. Motivated learners can learn almost everything.
Many teaching strategies and learning activities address this notion. For example, Problem-based Learning Theory (an amalgamation of Cognitive and Social Constructivist theories, by Piaget (1920) and Vygotsky (1978), respectively), is a hands-on, active learning technique that lets students be independent thinkers and problem-solvers through investigation, where the teacher is a facilitator. Other models which guarantee student engagement include Discovery Learning by Bruner (1961), Experiential Learning by Kolb (1984) and 21st Century Skills. These models provide maximum opportunities for students to experience with materials and resources, collaborate, socialize, analyse and solve problems related to real life. Teachers can employ instruction which is clear, communicate their objectives vividly, design a plan using a variety of strategies and resources, ask questions frequently and effectively and have brain-storming sessions, attention grabbing starters, pre-while-post technology hands-on, debates, role plays, enquiries, case studies, research, multimedia presentations, group work, simulation by audios and videos, games, interactive plenaries, inventories, quizzes etc.
From this discussion, one can learn that reflection in learning is a multidimensional practice that enhances the learning principles, processes and outputs suggested by a number of learning theories (e.g. experiential learning, constructivist learning, critical learning, etc.). “Reflection in learning then is the vehicle for critical analysis, problem-solving, synthesis of opposing ideas, evaluation, identifying patterns and creating meaning out of the experiences” (Caine, & Caine, 1991:3). It is possible to conclude that many of the higher order thinking skills that we strive to foster in our students in general and in student teachers in particular effect through the utilization of reflective learning (Andrusyszyn & Davie, 1997; Brockbank & McGill; 2007; King,
ICBL can be used as an instructional approach and assessment. Besides the three stages that align with scientific inquiry, the three-phase process of ICBL can be closely mapped to the features of authentic assessment as suggested by Wiggins (1998). In the problem posing phase, an unstructured problem in the form of a real-world case is given to the students for their analysis and problem creation. When they problem solve their proposed questions in the problem solving phase, teachers will guide students on applying knowledge and skills and exploration in the discipline. Finally, in peer persuasion, students will defend their findings and convince their peers.
He or she assumes his/ her inner world of thought and feeling in relation to others in an individualized learning to become a more active, successful, and well-rounded individual while interacting and cooperating with other learners. Humanistic approach stresses on the affective and cognitive aspects of learners in the process of learning. Teachers’ and learners’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions to the learning and
Discussions can be an excellent strategy for enhancing student motivation, fostering intellectual agility, and encouraging democratic habits. They create opportunities for students to practice and sharpen a number of skills, including the ability to articulate and defend positions, consider different points of view, and enlist and evaluate evidence.r and make a great effect in students ' lives, you should have a complete knowledge about all teaching strategies, and instructional choices and how to use them effectively throughout the lesson explanation. The instructional alternatives are many. there are many choices can the teacher use to facilitate students learning and satisfaction, also to motivate them and grasp their attention, and organize information for understanding and remembering, there are some common alternatives , presentation, discussion, independent study, individualized instruction, direct instruction ,cooperative learning and
Review of Literature Learning styles: Learning styles are the different preferred approaches and ways of learning (Shokrpoor et al., 2015). Gregorc (1979) presented a definition of learning styles as "distinctive behaviors which serve as indicators of how a person learns from and adapts to his environment. It also gives clues as to how a person’s mind operates". Keefe (1991) viewed learning style as "composite of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to the learning environment". Learning styles are the consistent patterns of behaviors and performances by which the individual approaches in his educational experiences (Ellis, 2001).
INTRODUCTION Concept mapping is a method of learning .Learning means is an intellectual process of each learner to make his or her understanding of ideas, concept, connections and procedure .This type of learning helps the student to organize their thinking and to know the other common concepts around them. Definition A concept or mind mapping is a brief but comprehensive symbolic representation of the collection of ideas, concepts and the linking relationships of knowledge about a topic or process of an individual. The father of the concept mapping is Joseph. D. Novak. He believed in constructivism and cognitive theory.
Learner centred approach places students at the centre of the classroom respecting their learning needs, strategies and styles. Students can be observed working individually or in pairs on distinct tasks. Dewey attributed to the teacher a key role in enabling children “to discover, articulate, and expand their interests and thereby direct their attention”. For McClintock, the teacher’s purpose is to “incite” the students’ “passion” for study. I think that the concept of collaborative learning can also be sought as a means to overcome this issue.