This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
The reactants are those substances that changes during a chemical reaction while the products are those that are yield during a chemical reaction. If the chemical reaction is not balanced, we cannot derive the relationship between the products and reactants. So the first thing we should do when we see a chemical reaction is to balance it. How do we balance a chemical equation? Look at this scale; we can see that it is unbalanced wherein the right side weighs more than the left side.
The cis and trans isomers are diastereomers of one another. Therefore, in this experiment the product was determined by assessing the melting points of the compound and comparing it to the known value. Isomers are a molecule that contains the same molecular formula as another molecule but differs in their chemical
Formula 2: % Component= 100% component mass (g) sample mass (g) Procedure First, we measured out the evaporating dish to find the mass. Then we added around 3 grams of our sample (2.832g exactly). Next we added the isopropyl alcohol to dissolve the Benzoic Acid. We filled the evaporating dish, stirred, and then decanted the sample into a 140mL beaker with a stirring rod. This
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the rate of the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in regard to the effects of concentration and temperature. 2H2O2 (l) —I-—> 2H2O (l) + O2 (g) In part one of the experiment, catalyst KI was added to varying solutions of 3% hydrogen peroxide and DI water and the composition of hydrogen peroxide was observed. This was observed by collection the volume of oxygen gas produced during the decomposition, and measuring its volume. From that, volume of oxygen gas produced was plotted against time and a linear least square fit line was generate. From the line equation, rate was derived, rate is equal to the slope of the line.
After adding three boiling chips, 10 mL of 48% hydrobromic acid was also added to the round bottom flask and swirled for 15 seconds to reactants in the flask. The reactants were clamped to a ring stand and a pre-set reflux apparatus with clear hoses attached to the condenser. The voltage regulator was set to 40 to begin water flow through the condenser and the application of heat, so the solvent can boil. The reaction was set to reflux for 30 minutes. Upon completion, the round bottom flask cooled for three minutes in a beaker filled with room temperature water and again in a beaker with ice cold
Procedure: Obtain an empty aluminum can, ice bath, metal tongs and a hot plate Turn on the hot plate to maximum temperature Add a very small amount of water to the empty can and place it upright on the hot plate Wait until you see steam rapidly escaping the can and then use the tongs to quickly turn it upside down in the ice bath Observations: -vapor came out the top and bubbles were visible inside (boiling) -as soon as the can was flipped into the ice water, it was crushed -audible sound as the can was crushed Analysis: Right before you flip the can into the freezing water, what is the vapor pressure of water inside the can? The vapor pressure is high because increased temperature (boiling) means increased kinetic energy (the molecules
Introduction: In this lab, of water in a hydrate, or a substance whose crystalline structure is bound to water molecules by weak bonds, is determined by heating up a small sample of it. By heating, the water of hydration, or bound water, is removed, leaving only what is called an anhydrous compound. Based on the percent water in the hydrate, it can be classified as one of three types: BaCl2O ⋅ 2H20, with a percent water of about 14.57%, CuSO4 ⋅ 5H2O, which has about 36.0%, and CuCl2 ⋅5H20 (21.17%). Materials: Ring stand, ring clamp, evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, clay triangle, crucible tongs, electronic balance, sample of hydrated salt. Methods: Weight a clean, dry, porcelain evaporating dish on the electric balance and record this mass on an appropriate data table.