The emergence of public health challenges in the next decade will not be something new and it will not easily fixed. The institutions that are currently in place and have historically contributed to issues of health inequities and will continue to do so unless they are deconstructed and rebuilt with equity in mind. The three most important public health challenges will be the rate of uninsured people and the mistrust that this causes, the medical industrial complex and the effects of trying to deconstruct mass incarceration.
The Antebellum Period that lasted roughly from 1825–1850 is an era known for its many reform movements and major transformations in American society. Prior to the popularity of reform movements in American society was the 1828 election in which Andrew Jackson became the seventh president. Jackson professed himself the “champion of the common man,” where the “common man” meant white men. Nevertheless, his presidency caused the development of a more popular mass democracy, or Jacksonian Democracy as it is commonly referred to. The westward expansion that occurred during Jackson’s presidency lead to a shift in America’s economical makeup from a mercantile/market economy to capitalism.
Prisoners in the United States and elsewhere have always confronted a unique set of contingencies and pressures to which they were required to react and adapt in order to survive the prison experience. However, over the last several decades beginning in the early 1970s and continuing to the present time a combination of forces have transformed the nation's criminal justice system and modified the nature of imprisonment.(2) The challenges prisoners now face in order to both survive the prison experience and, eventually, reintegrate into the freeworld upon release have changed and intensified as a result. Among other things, these changes in the nature of imprisonment have included a series of inter-related, negative trends in American corrections.
The amount of mass incarceration in the United States as reached an all time high over the years. Mass Incarceration is the incarceration of a person or race based off of them being different and can be identified as a trend among law enforcements. These tensions have reached a certain extent and has received the attention of American citizens and the nation’s government. The laws of the United States seems fair, however with the enforcement of these laws, specific groups are targeted and abused by them daily.
Thesis: It is very important for the sake of Americans tax dollars that we change the way that prisons are run and increase the productivity of inmates so when they are released from jail they are ready to be a productive member in society and have the confidence to achieve new goals. Introduction: Day after day, millions of inmates sit in jail doing nothing productive with their lives. We are paying to house inmates that may not even have a good reason to be there. For example, drug offenders are being kept with murderers and other violent offenders.
There has been an exceedingly high increase in the population in federal prisons. “The Federal prison population has grown by 750 percent since 1980 and our Federal prisons are approximately 30 percent over capacity” (). We are overflowing our prison cells with criminals of all degrees. We need Smarter Sentencing to keep people from have long drawn out sentences and crowding up our cells for people who actually need to be there for that amount of time. Over capacitated cells are actually ridiculous.
A lot of research has been put into the effects of imprisonment and the variables that influence how an offender adapts to confinement, what some of the consequences of confinement are. Some of the variables that contribute to how an offender will adapt and socialize in prison, would be how they were raised and socialized before prison, the environment that the prison creates for the offenders; and the influences that offenders face in prison and the Cliques that they associate with and the support they have from within the community. Prison conditions need to be modified as well as the practices of most prisons in the United States, integrating more programs that will prepare an offender for a successful reintegration into society, as well as to insure a successful long-term adjustment to parole.
1. A survey conducted in Washington; the survey showed that the majority of the public believed that treatment and job training programs in prisons must increase for the sake of public safety, so when an inmate is released they will be a productive citizen. The survey also showed that the public believes that there are too many low-risk and non-violent offenders in prison. 2. Correctional agencies reduce their operating costs by Reducing Unnecessary Consumption of Medical Services, tightening contracting and auditing, using in-house medical services when it is less expensive, reducing the inmate population, and decreasing parole revocation rate.
In the journal “What works in Reducing Recidivism” I revised how Latessa has been finding the resources of different interventions that can help inmates reduce the drugs and crime. Different evaluations and meta-analysis and cost-benefit studies have improved of the drug courts. Drug courts have produced a modest and significant recidivism for adults with cost savings. As well for juvenile’s drug court are less substantial. A few programs that have I have reviewed to be non effective in reducing recidivism were shaming offenders, drug prevention programs, talking cures and self help programs have actually increased recidivism rates.
Many factors have played into why minorities are so overrepresented within the criminal justice and corrections system, however, I will focus on two main reasons into why this disparity has existed. The first being, the manipulation of laws by elites targeting minority communities. For example, during the 70s and 80s, drugs in America became very popular and in particular crack-cocaine became a leading drug among consumers. For Caucasians, the drug of choice was cocaine which they would snort through the nose, for African-Americans it was crack which was cocaine, however, it was cooked into a rock while cocaine is a powder substance. During this time period both drugs were popular among both races, though, there was a bigger crackdown on crack and the minority community.