3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
Introduction Chromatography is the technique of separating of mixtures based on their intermolecular forces. It separates according to their adsorption differences. Intermolecular forces make molecules bind on the solid surfaces; this process is referred to as the absorption. A molecule undergoes desorption process when it moves from the solid surface into the solution. The different rates between desorption and adsorption are applied in the chromatography methods for separation of mixtures.
The cis and trans isomers are diastereomers of one another. Therefore, in this experiment the product was determined by assessing the melting points of the compound and comparing it to the known value. Isomers are a molecule that contains the same molecular formula as another molecule but differs in their chemical
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
After a mixture has traversed the length of the column, it emerges separated into its components. The written record of this separation is called a chromatogram. A direct connection between the GC column and mass spectrometer allows each component by high-energy electrons produces a fingerprint pattern of the substances being
Spectrophotometry Prepared for: Dr. Joseph Dasso By: Lucy Onsarigo Biology 1406 C5L September 23rd, 2014 Introduction Spectophotometry is the ability of molecules to absorb and transmit light energy for determining the concentration of substances in a solution. (Mark Garcia 2014). The instrument used is called spectrophotometer to distinguish different compounds since they absorb light at different wavelength. Some have wide range of wavelength and the shorter the wavelength the higher the energy. For one to know the absorbed light one has to put a cuvette into a sample holder with a solution and record the amount of light transmitted and absorbed through the solution.
Unit 3: Formation of ionic and metallic bonds Key unit competence: Describe how properties of ionic compounds and metals are related to the nature of their bonding 3.1. Introduction Activity 3.1 Look at the pictures above and answer the following questions. Record your answers and discuss them in your groups. 1) Observe carefully pictures A, B and C and suggest the similarity between them. 2) What can you say about the chloride and sodium ions in the pictures above?
An energy cycle or energy level diagram is used to determine the relationship between all reactions involved before using Hess’s Law to solve for the unknown ΔH. Consider the example of partial hydrogenation of an alkyne to give an alkene. The partial hydrogenation of 2-butyne is exemplified by the following: However, it is difficult to conduct the experiment in the laboratory to measure the enthalpy change of hydrogenation of 2-butyne directly. Instead, the enthalpy change of combustion of the alkyne, alkene and hydrogen are determined separately, followed by the application of Hess’s