4- Set up reflux system using a clean and dry condenser . 5- Place the flask on the hot plate and heat the reaction for 45 minutes - 1 hour . 6- When the reflux is over , remove magnetic stirrer and allow the reaction to cool to room temperature . 7- Add 20 ml of ice water to a separating funnel
After dropped completely the copper manganese solution into the precipitant ageing for 2h, then filtered, washing several times with hot deionized water. After washing drying the precursor in an oven and calcination it in flowing air calcination conditions before measuring of the catalyst activity test. The amount of copper was added varied to the preparation of CuMnOx catalysts with nominal Cu/Mn molar ratios. After drying of the precursors their granules were crushed into powdered form for activity measurement purposes. 2.2 Characterization of catalysts The Scanning electron micrographs (SEM-EDX) produced the high-resolution image of a catalyst by an electron beam and the
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The experiment began by setting up the LabQuest and preparing a 2M solution of HCl and a 2M solution of NaOH. This was called “Part A”. Two general rules were noted throughout the experiment: add acid to water and pour stock solution into beaker before graduated cylinder. This prevented flash-boiling of the solution, chemical burns, and spills. To make the 2M HCl solution, 200mL deionized water was added to a 600mL beaker labelled “2M HCl” by using a graduated cylinder.
There will be a stir that helps distribute the heat evenly all through the water. A temperature probe determines the amount of heat given off and converts it to joules. Components of a Bomb Calorimeter The main elements of a bomb calorimeter are: • Dewar or insulating jacket: is the body of the calorimeter which is made up of a doublewalled flask of metal with a vacuum between the two walls to prevent the transfer of heat.
EC treatment of oil wastewater samples has been tested on a laboratory scale and good removal of COD, color, turbidity and dissolved solids at varying operating conditions were obtained. 2. Materials and methods: 2.1 Experimental equipment: An electrochemical reactor shown in figure, having 500 ml with a speed of agitation of 200 rpm with aluminum electrodes in series arrangement connected to a DC power supply ( 1.5 Amp & 6 Volt ) was used to carry out the experiments. The total 4 no of electrodes are used. The % removals of Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD) were calculated by changing different parameters: pH, electrode gap and operation time.
A known mass of seawater (Mcw + Mf1 + Mf2) at temperature Tcw, and salt concentration Sf, is pumped into the condenser to condense the steam into liquid, where its temperature increases to Tf. The cooling water, Mcw, is discharged into the sea. The feed seawater 1, Mf1, and the feed seawater 2, Mf2, are chemically treated and de-aerated before being pumped to the primary evaporator and secondary evaporator, respectively. In the primary evaporator, the feed seawater 1 was heated up by the low-temperature heat source, where its temperature is raised from Tf to the evaporating temperature, Tp. In the secondary evaporator, the feed seawater 2 was heated up by the mixed steam from the steam ejector, where its temperature is raised from Tf to the evaporating temperature, Ts.
The solvents DMF and methanol were distilled for purification. Other chemicals were used as obtained. 2.2 Preparation of polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene monomer. Styrene (1 mole) was taken in a round bottom flask (RBF) fitted with a reflux condenser. DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring.
Lecturer Date Introduction Theoretical Background Procedure The procedure was segmented into two categories, the reaction set up and the crude product isolation. Reaction set up The magnetic stirrer was prepared through placing it in the fume cupboard. 1 mmol of L-Phenylalanine was placed and weighed in a 5 mL conical vial. After that, a spin vane was inserted into the vial while adding 0.75 mL of 1M H2SO4 solution. During the addition of the sulphuric acid, the solution was stirred at room temperature until the amino acid (L-Phe) completely dissolved.