Mastectomy Research Paper

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Mastectomy is a medical term for the surgical removal of cancerous tissues from one or both breast (partially or completely). Mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer. In some cases, women at high risk of breast cancer can have the operation as a prophylactic or preventive measure. In some cases, some patients can choose to have lumpectomy which involves wide local excision of a small volume of breast tissue containing the tumor. Mastectomy and lumpectomy are local therapies for breast cancer because it targets the area of the tumor compared to systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy). Figure 3: Lumpectomy in the right breast in a 50 years old Nigerian woman
The decision to carry out a mastectomy depends on a number of factors; breast size, number of
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Breast cancer in Nigeria is characterized by late presentation, younger age at diagnosis, large tumours and multiple nodal involvements. The pattern of presentation differs from that in the western world where most patients are post-menopausal and present with small sized early tumors and less aggressive disease. Figure5: Mastectomy in a 48 years old Nigerian patient with Breast cancer

The use of conservative surgery as part of multidisciplinary management of breast cancer is increasing throughout the world. However complete surgical removal of the breast with its local lymphatic drainage remains the preferred surgical treatment in Nigeria and most low income countries (LICs) where breast conserving surgery is infrequently practiced. The reason for this disparity include; late stage of presentation, large size of tumors at diagnosis, lack of access to treatment, poor affordability and the aggressive nature of the disease commonly seen among Nigerian women and in other low income

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