(2007) stated that “When describing the child with desirable characteristics… United States mothers focused on a much greater range of attributes-involving personality, social skills, character, and a host of specific traits- than did Japanese.” (p. 481). Whereas Japanese mothers mentioned mostly social roles, responsibilities, etc. In Japan child-rearing practices mother and infant are almost always together. Co-sleeping, co-bathing, etc are very common, and this creates dependence (Rothbaum, et al., 2007). Whereas U.S. practices encourage independence and exploration, so the child learns how to deal with absence of the caregiver.
Close examination of varying maternal relations, from smothering, to abusive, to a seemingly unbreakable tie in “From Childhood” and “Mother and Son” points to the idea that though all human beings alike do indeed have a biological mother, no two relationships are the same, which ultimately proves how each mother child rapport has its own place on the very wide spectrum of relationships. Most, if not all, people have the knowledge that it is a mother’s natural tendency to be loving and caring; it is even considered a social norm. “From Childhood” by Rainer Maria Rilke depicts a mother who is perhaps too loving and too caring, or too extreme in regard to
Mother Archetype Mothers are seen occasionally as the strangest, craziest, altruistic people who have ever been encountered. However some argue that they are the complete opposite. The basic perception of mothers that they are loving, caring, and very nurturing, and this makes up the mother archetype, not only modern day but records and perceptions that date back to ancient history. Although it has come along way, Mothers play a very important role in modern day theatre, literature, and even stories dating back to the biblical era. In ancient texts, we see this role being played by Thetis, Achilles mother in Greek mythology.
According to John Bowlby, a British researcher, all these attachments made throughout life can be traced back to the right kind of maternal presence had during the first three years of life, also known as the critical period. Bowlby explains that the relationship with mothers play a crucial role in the behavioural development of a child and can determine the ability to make healthy relationships in the future. With his Monotropic Attachment Theory he explains that attachment is innate. It is a biological need that has evolved for survival. His idea of monotropy suggests, that an infant forms a primary attachment figure, which is one special attachment, usually with the mother.
Through examining Amy Tan’s book The Joy Luck Club, Sandhya Shetty’s painting Mother and Daughter, and “Sonnets are full of love, and this is my tome” by Christina Rossetti, the power of a mother’s influence is evident. As the prominence of a mother’s wisdom grows, a daughter’s perspective will transform by understanding her relationships and situations. To describe the relationship between a mother and daughter as “complex” barely scratches the surface. For many, it is full of appreciation and admiration, frustration and contempt, or wonder and awe. Since birth, a mother and daughter feel an instinctual pull towards the other to care for and be
This will be supported with a reference to attachment theory. Attachment theory established an infant 's earliest relationship with their primary caregiver shaped their development and reflects on their self-esteem (Bowlby, 129), according to Bowlby, the development of attachment affected by the relationship with the caregiver in early age (birth to age 6 weeks), and then the child grows older and begin to understand his parent 's feelings. Also, he needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for the child 's successful social, psychological, and emotional development. In insecure or avoidant attachment the infant is "indifferent and seems to avoid the mother or the primary caregiver, they are as
INTRODUCTION: Motherhood, as defined in the Oxford dictionary of Sociology, is a term encompassing the practical realities and social significance of being a mother. It wouldn’t be wrong to say motherhood, as a concept, is central to processes in which women are defined by others and how they define themselves. Females are all seen as potential mothers once we reach the age of menstruation and after that we are expected to fulfill our reproductive destiny. If this doesn’t occur, women are often viewed as “failed” mothers. Womanhood is directly linked to our potential for motherhood.
The feminist critics look into this relationship of mother and child very deeply with different factors. Daughter – mother relation is dynamic in nature which has undergone sweeping changes down through the ages. Those particular changes have taken place due to the attention rested on mothers and daughters respectively, since every mother was once herself as a daughter and every daughter can attain motherhood later in their life. Feminist psychoanalytic theorists suggest, “The sex-role socialization process is different for boys and girls. While boys learn maleness by rejecting femaleness via separating themselves from their mothers, girls establish feminine identities by embracing the femaleness of their mothers.
The position of the mother as a foster mother, which allowed Jeanette to better experience feelings of resentment in the past, seems to facilitate her ability to forgive her adoptive maternal figure too. The final reconciliation makes it possible to describe the novel as a ‘feminist family romance’, according to the definition provided by Marianne Hirsch. For Hirsch, feminist family romances are those novels where the development of female subjectivity and self-empowerment is determined by the continuation of the mother-daughter relationship, as opposed to the previous common rejection of the maternal figure theorized, amongst others, by Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray. The bond within mother and daughter is reevaluated and comes to be considered as an important site for female development and a basis for a vision of gender difference and female specificity. In this type of narratives, women are represented as subjects, capable of relating their own story.
According to Strage (2000), authoritative parenting incorporates with high standards for achievement such as demandingness provide emotional support and encouraging independence in the adolescent. Authoritarian parents try to shape, control, and jugged the behavior of the children’s and they usually followed an absolute standard. They also used punishing and forceful measures when the child’s views conflicted with parents. The permissive parenting style matches to the behaviors of affection and responsiveness with the child, without any restrictions for appropriate behavior. Mandara and Murray (2002) used the approach of Baumrind and they want to study the association between parental rearing, psychopathology, and competence in childhood and in adolescence.