Vygotsky introduced the concept of the More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) (2016:61) and hence learners do not necessarily have to gain knowledge from the teacher. The lesson wheel allows the teacher to incorporate cooperative learning into a lesson through learner activities so that learners can get the chance to be actively involved in gaining knowledge and in this process learn from their MKO. According to constructivism, learners have to construct their knowledge from what they already know (2009:138). This is evident in the lesson wheel during the introduction phase where the planned lesson should be linked to the learners’ prior
Curriculum Development. Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting learners’ needs leads to improvement of learners’ learning. Therefore, curriculum developers should gather as much information as possible toward the learners’ needs. Those who are affected by the curriculum should be involved in the process of planning and then in the process of implantation and evaluation (Lunenborg and Ornstein, 2012) Reyes and Dizon (2015) and Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, and Javier (2011) claimed that there are three types of curriculum: 1) The intended curriculum – content specified by the state/ province course or at a particular grade level,district or school, which must be addressed in a particular 2) The implemented curriculum-content
Input evaluation is an assessment of what strategies and resources for the curriculum should be concerned and employed in order to achieve proposed objectives in the first step. In other words, it helps in program structuring decisions. Process evaluation examines and monitors how the curriculum is implemented and performed. This kind of feedback can be helpful in making formative evaluation decisions relating to the maintenance or modification of the curriculum. Finally, through product evaluation, managers are provided with summative information that can be used to judge the worth and influence of
On the other hand, horizontal articulation refers to what students are doing in a particular grade level. Lastly, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary articulation addresses the capability of a subject to associate to other disciplines in the curriculum. Curriculum Alignment According to Case, Jorgenson, and Zucker (2004), curriculum alignment is defined as the degree to which the components of an education system (standards, curricula, assessments, and instruction) work together to achieve desired goals. Curriculum alignment gives opportunities for teachers to participate in professional development efforts that enhance learning process. It is also a chance for teachers and curriculum experts to work in teams, to plan, to review, and to improve instruction and to work with educational leaders.
Language objectives refer to language skills that learners are expected to acquire in the classroom. Objectives that are concerned with strategies for communicating, learning, and critical thinking are referred to as "strategic objectives". Learning process are “conscious processes and techniques that facilitate the comprehension, acquisition, and retention of new skills and concepts” (Chamot and O’Malley 1987). According to Chamot and Michael O’Malley, these may include metacognitive strategies (such as selective attention), cognitive strategies (such as summarizing and elaboration), or socio-affective strategies (such as questioning for clarification). Socio-affective objectives refer to changes in learner’s attitudes or social behaviours that result from classroom instruction (e.g.
It is also process of organizing the tasks of teaching and determining content, learning resources, and classroom procedures. The curriculum needs to be developed in order to be used.Curriculum development present two views on how it is developed. Curriculum plan is developed in rational and logical way and another view is curriculum is socially constructed, linked to power and
Curriculum evaluation is a necessary and important aspect of any national education system. It provides the basis for curriculum policy decisions, for feedback on continuous curriculum adjustments and processes of curriculum implementation. The fundamental concerns of curriculum evaluation relate to: • Effectiveness and efficiency of translating government education policy into educational practice; • Status of curriculum contents and practices in the contexts of global, national and local concerns; • The achievement of the goals and aims of educational programmes. Curriculum evaluation aims to examine the impact of implemented curriculum on student (learning) achievement so that the official curriculum can be revised if necessary and to review teaching and learning processes in the classroom. Curriculum evaluation establishes: • Specific strengths and weaknesses of a curriculum and its
They come as individual with already formulated knowledge, ideas, and understandings and this previous knowledge will be used as raw materials for the new knowledge they will create. According to DeVries (2002), assessment should link documents like tests, anecdotal reports or written observations to the curriculum itself and to the
Needs analysis that emphasizes on the learners' present situation (strength and weaknesses) is called Present Situation Analysis (PSA) and the one that emphasizes on what learners need after taking the ESP course is Target Situation Analysis (TSA) (pp. 8-9). The result of the needs analysis can be the start point for the teacher to design the syllabus and select the teaching materials for an ESP course. The authenticity of the materials and the use of textbooks or tailor-made materials are the issues about the materials selection since ESP relates to the learners’ disciplines or professions. The teaching and learning process, the assessment and the evaluation also have equally important roles as needs analysis and course design.
The intended object of learning refers to the intended learning outcome of the lesson. The enacted object of learning is the outcome of the executed lesson which is established by the teacher and learner. The lived object of learning is what the students actually learn. This depends on the student’s experience of the dimension of variation that relate to critical aspects of the object of