Mauritz Johnson's Theory Of Curriculum Development

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Mauritz Johnson differentiated between curriculum and the process of curriculum development and proposed six point schema of curriculum development. According to him, curriculum is the output of a curriculum development system and comprises of a structured series of intended learning outcomes.

1. Curriculum is a structured series of intended learning outcomes

The intention of the curriculum is to achieve the learning outcomes in an organized and well planned manner. It is a planned learning experience. The learning outcomes should be well defined and these learning outcomes are of three main types/domains: Cognitive, psychomotor and affective.

2. Selection is an essential aspect of curriculum formulation

Curriculum should be selected
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Curriculum is restricted to a restricted range of student skills and knowledge. Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of the teacher to select. The teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situation sufficient to induce the kind of learning outcomes desired. Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be simply declared in behavioral objectives (Prideaux, 2003).

Curriculum theory is a set of interrelated statement that gives useful meanings to an institutional curriculum by describing the relationships between its different components and elements and by directing its development, use and evaluation. Curriculum theory applies to all educational institutions and includes historical perspective of curriculum and analysis of current curriculum and policy decisions. Curriculum theorists focus on the development of curriculum in terms of reproduction and broadening of learning opportunities (Young, 2014).
Curriculum theory and practice can be approached by four ways.
1. Curriculum as syllabus to be
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Curriculum as product
Education is a technical exercise which focuses on the product. According to the set objectives, an educational road map is made and applied and the products/outcomes are measured. This approach of curriculum theory and practice is systematic and organized. One of the key elements of this approach is the formation of behavioral objectives so that the content and appropriate methods can be planned and organized to be evaluated. The curriculum hence is the series of planned experiences which students must have in order to obtain these objectives (Bobbitt, 1918).
The problems with measuring objectives are time consuming formation of long lists of smaller segments which sometimes are trivial competencies which leads to focusing on the parts of the curriculum rather than as a whole. The importance of overall assessment and judgment is placed aside at times. Nature of the objectives and their effective measurement is also a debatable aspect. The focus on specified outcomes may lead the learners and teachers to overlook learning that is happening as a result of the interactions just because these interactions are not specified

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